10-K

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015
or
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from                     to
Commission File Number: 001-35468
 
CafePress Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Delaware
 
94-3342816
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
6901 Riverport Drive, Louisville, KY
 
40258
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (502)-995-2258
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class:
 
Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, par value $.0001 per share
 
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨



Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ¨   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
x  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $32,909,000 based upon the closing price of $4.50 of such common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2015 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter). Shares of common stock held as of June 30, 2015 by each director and executive officer of the registrant, as well as shares held by each holder of 10% of the common stock known to the registrant, have been excluded for purposes of the foregoing calculation. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of March 18, 2016, there were 16,768,736 shares of the common stock of the registrant outstanding.
Documents Incorporated By Reference
All or a portion of Items 10 through 14 in Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, which will be filed within 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s fiscal year covered by this report on Form 10-K, or if the Registrant’s Schedule 14A is not filed within such period, will be included in an amendment to this Report on Form 10-K which will be filed within such 120 day period.
 




TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
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Table of Contents

Index to Financial Statements


STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
Except for the historical financial information contained herein, this annual report on Form 10-K (the “Report”) contains certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and are subject to the safe harbor created by the Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “might,” “will,” “objective,” “intend,” “should,” “could,” “can,” “would,” “expect,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “plan,” or the negative of these terms, and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements, include, but are not limited to, statements about: our strategy, including our focus on simplifying our business, simplifying product offerings, plans to stabilize revenue, rebuilding the user experience, creating long-term customer relationships, focusing on high quality content partners, and seeking viable international channels and enhancing back end tool sets, our financial performance, including revenues, cost of revenues and operating expenses; our plans for future services and enhancements of existing services; the results of any impairment of goodwill; the anticipated impact and benefits of our recent divestitures, including streamlining of the Company’s operations; seasonal fluctuations in our business and statements about our expectations as to the variability of our growth rates from period to period; anticipated trends and challenges in our business and the markets in which we operate; customer acquisition costs as a predictor of future growth; our plans to address industry competition and related pressures; our anticipated cash needs and our estimates regarding capital requirements; our investment plans, our needs for additional financing and the potential dilutive effect thereof; our liability from user-generated content; our ability to recognize and remedy issues with internal controls; the expected results of any remediation plans; the impact of production issues and delayed orders; our responses to changing customer preferences, new technologies, requirements and industry standards; our anticipated growth strategies; our expectations with respect to raw materials, suppliers or inventory; our regulatory environment; benefit of non-GAAP financial measures; our legal proceedings to which we are a party and the impact and timing of costs related thereto; our content acquisition strategy; marketing and selling products and services beyond our existing target markets and our ability to develop new products, services and sources of revenues; our ability to protect intellectual property and other trade secrets; risks associated with our efforts to streamline our business and operations; risks related to the volatility of our stock and the impact of a large sale of stock by our stockholders and our repurchase program or any dividend program we put in place.
These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks set forth throughout this Report, including under Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. We expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make on related subjects in our 10-Q and 8-K reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

PART I

ITEM 1. Business
Overview
Founded in 1999, we completed our initial public offering in April 2012 and our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “PRSS.”
We are a leading online retailer of personalized products offering a wide variety of expressive gifts and accessories including t-shirts and apparel, mugs and drinkware, and home goods such as custom shower curtains and bed coverings. We conduct most of our business on our primary United States based domain, CafePress.com and also operate CafePress branded websites for the markets in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. We also sell CafePress branded products through other online retail partners. Our products are customized with expressive designs contributed through a variety of means including crowd-sourced user generated content, stock art licenses and licensed content relationships with large entertainment companies and brands.

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Our facility in Louisville, Kentucky has innovative technology and manufacturing processes that enable us to provide high-quality customized products that are individually built to order. Our proprietary processes enable us to produce a broad range of merchandise efficiently, cost effectively and quickly. We also maintain a diverse network of contract manufacturers that give us the ability to broaden our manufacturing capabilities and produce in certain international locales.
In November 2014, we sold the primary assets and liabilities of our online custom stationery products business, InvitationBox.com. In March 2015, we sold the primary assets and liabilities of our Art business, which included our custom canvas production and printing facility in Raleigh, North Carolina, and the front-end direct e-commerce websites for CanvasOnDemand.com, GreatBigCanvas.com, and ImageKind.com. In March 2015, we also sold the primary assets and liabilities of our Groups business, which included our printing facility used by our Logosportswear.com brand operated in Cheshire, Connecticut. In September, 2015, we sold our EZ Prints business, which included our B2B printing facility in Norcross, Georgia, and provided a suite of enterprise class deployable software products and services focused on private label e-commerce customization services, including the retail website ezprints.com. We believe these divestitures are an integral part of our strategy to focus on the core CafePress.com business and to strengthen our balance sheet.

Our E-Commerce Platform Products and Services
CafePress receives content from a wide variety of sources including user-generated content, licensed content from various properties, and content from stock photo sources. These products are digitally rendered for consumers onto a variety of base goods, and the combination of the content and base good creates the range of products rendered on CafePress.com.

For CafePress.com, these products and the associated metadata will be marketed to draw both search engine traffic and direct traffic. Prices are typically set by CafePress when we control the marketing. This is what is typically called our Marketplace.

User-generated content can also be created on CafePress for personal purchase, or to be sold. If user-generated content is to be sold to others, the content generator is called a Shopkeeper, and may be paid a commission in one of two ways. The predominant method is a marketplace commission which is fairly standard for most Shopkeepers, and has the terms of the commission structure online.  The Shopkeeper can also elect to create a "Shop". The Shopkeeper can use a suite of tools to provide a unique e-commerce experience, set their own markup above our standard product pricing, and drive their own marketing. Because the Shopkeeper drives its own traffic and sets its markup for their Shop, the commission is typically higher than through the Marketplace.

Our Retail Partner Channels typically refer to the fact that we are generating revenue from sources other than on the Cafepress domain of websites.  Feeds refers to our platform for offering our more popular content and products to other e-commerce retail websites such as Amazon and Walmart. In addition, CafePress may offer its Corporate Shops tools to be used on other hosted websites in exchange for licensed content agreements that also benefit CafePress.com.

Whether sold on CafePress.com or Retail Partner Channels, the resulting order is electronically communicated to our fulfillment center in Louisville, KY, and then routed to the appropriate location to be manufactured on-demand. Most of our goods are manufactured in Louisville, KY, however we do have fulfillment arrangements with others with different product expertise, or geographical advantages such as Europe, Australia and Canada. Products are then produced, and shipped from the appropriate fulfillment location, where they are then billed to the customer's credit card.

Our strategy
Our goal is to help individuals establish connections and celebrate their identities, interests and obsessions through unique products and content. The desire to personalize products and express affinity through the things individuals surround themselves with, whether they are decorating their apparel, their home or office, remains strong, and as we improve the quality of our execution and services, we believe we can eventually capture more of that demand. Key elements of our strategy, both in 2015 and going forward, to achieve this goal include:

Simplify the business. Our recent divestitures allow us to focus on our core business. By concentrating on fewer production facilities, products and website brands, we believe we can improve our quality and operational efficiency more quickly.

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Simplify Product Offerings. Our goal is to simplify and streamline our products and services, rather than trying to provide as many customizable options as possible. As a result, in 2015 we stopped producing over 200 base goods that had either low margins, low quality ratings, or little revenue. We plan to continue focusing on providing products that maximize customer satisfaction and that can be produced profitably.
Stabilize Revenue. With our efforts to stabilize margin nearly complete, we are now turning our focus to the revenues we believe can be generated. A combination of new sales and marketing strategies will be developed, including tools to better capitalize quickly on market opportunities without needing cumbersome IT resources to implement them.
Rebuild the User Experience. A key aspect of our ability to improve our retention and customer counts is to provide a site that removes as much friction from the purchasing funnel as possible. The cafepress.com site will undergo some transformation, including addressing how other devices such as tablets and mobile phones can comfortably shop the site.
Create long-term relationships with our customers. We are focused on increasing both the average order size and the lifetime value received from our customers. We believe we will achieve this by establishing stronger relationships with our consumers, understanding their passions and interests, and connecting with them through the media channels that are most appropriate.
Focus on high quality content partners. In 2015 we expanded our roster of licensed content partners as well as increased the range of content accessible on our site to attract new users. We continue to focus on film, television, sports, video game and other entertainment properties to bring content to our platform. For example, in 2015, we signed or implemented dozens of new licensed entertainment properties to make official and fan merchandise available through our platform, including The Peanuts Movie, Insurgent and Avengers 2: Age of Ultron.
Seek viable international channels. We intend to support profitable growth in our international channels, focusing efforts on our top international properties. As a result of this strategy, we have exited various foreign domains that required expensive translation, had low margins, and were not areas of focus for the Company.
Enhance Back End Tool Sets. Automating and expanding the back end tool sets is a key goal for 2016. This includes tools for various areas such as selling and marketing or finance to reduce manual processes and speed the delivery of timely information.

Competition
The market for customized products and services is large, fragmented and intensely competitive and we expect competition to increase in the future. We face competition from a wide range of companies, including the following:

small, traditional offline printing, gifting and souvenir businesses for apparel, accessories, home, or other customized products;
e-commerce companies, including large online retailers and marketplaces such as Amazon.com, Walmart.com, Target and eBay (who may also serve as our distribution partners);
online providers of customized products such as RedBubble Inc., CustomInk LLC, Spreadshirt Inc., Threadless.com, TeeSpring or Zazzle Inc. as well as providers of distinctive goods like Etsy, Inc. or Uncommon LLC;
online providers allowing users to customize goods in specific vertical markets, such as Cimpress N.V. for small businesses and Shutterfly, Inc. or SmugMug, Inc. for photographic products;
physical and catalog retailers of personalized merchandise such as Red Envelope and Things Remembered; and
small, but numerous, online providers who address niche customization services and product offerings, enabled by advances in digital printing technologies.

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We also indirectly compete with Internet portals and shopping search engines that are involved in e-commerce or sell products or services either directly or in collaboration with other retailers and our reliance on Internet portals and other sources of Internet and referral traffic, such as Groupon and Facebook, impacts both the way we do business and our performance against competitors. Changes to their practices could drive traffic to our competitors and away from our e-commerce sites in ways we may not anticipate or that will cause us to expend further resources to successfully compete. The shift to mobile site access prevalence presents challenges as we cope with adapting our site to shifting traffic patterns and the different use characteristics which include lower average order size, amongst others. Furthermore, to the extent that other companies are able to replicate our processes or if advances in print-on-demand technologies reduce any technological or other early mover leads we may have, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
Some of our current and potential competitors may have significantly greater financial, marketing and other resources than us, including significant brand recognition, sales volume and customer bases. In addition, other online retailers may be acquired by, receive investment from or enter into strategic relationships with, well-established and well-financed companies or investors which would help enhance their competitive positions. Some of our competitors may be able to secure goods and raw materials from suppliers on more favorable terms, devote greater resources to marketing activities and promotional campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing policies and devote substantially more resources to website and system development than us. Increased competition may reduce our operating margins, market share and brand recognition, or force us to incur losses. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors, and competitive pressures may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
We believe the principal competitive factors in our industry include:

favorable brand recognition and trust;
technological expertise;
quality, breadth and type of the products sold and services offered;
competitive pricing;
ability to source products efficiently and cost effectively;
ease of use and convenience of our services;
ability to anticipate and quickly adapt to changing customer demands and customer service needs; and
effective marketing and distribution.
We believe that we compete favorably with respect to each of these factors.

Intellectual property
We rely primarily on a combination of patents, trade secrets, trademarks and copyrights, as well as employee and third-party confidentiality and invention agreements to safeguard our intellectual property. As of December 31, 2015, we had seven issued patents, and one patent application pending in the United States, generally covering our e-commerce services or proprietary printing and decorating services and our online platform for designing and generating framed products. We continually assess appropriate occasions for seeking patent protection for those aspects of our technology, designs and methodologies and processes that we believe may ultimately provide significant competitive advantages.
As of December 31, 2015, we held 21 U.S. trademark registrations (some of which are registered in multiple classes), which include, among others, CAFEPRESS.COM, CAFEPRESS, and the “cafepress” logo. We are in the process of registering additional trademarks supporting our business and we also claim common law trademark rights in numerous trademarks. We have registered our CAFEPRESS.COM and CAFEPRESS trademarks in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. Several trademarks were included in the assets recently divested, including, but not limited to CanvasOnDemand, GreatBigCanvas, LogoSportswear, InvitationBox and EZPrints.
Our patents expire at various times between November 2025 and June 2031. In addition, in accordance with U.S. federal trademark law, our registered trademarks are registered for an initial period of 10 years, subject to subsequent 10-year renewal periods. We currently intend to maintain the registration of our trademarks indefinitely. We also register trademarks in dozens of international jurisdictions and likewise plan to renew our trademark registrations indefinitely wherever we conduct business. In the ordinary course of our business, we enter into hundreds of license agreements with content partners for the license of published entertainment content and consumer brands. We are not dependent on any specific content license agreement in the conduct of our business. We also license various forms of third-party technologies in the provision of our e-commerce services. We believe we have multiple sources for third-party technologies used in our business, and if we were to change licensor's for any reasons, it would result in minimal disruption to our operations, if any.

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Our standard content license agreement is typically for a term of three years, subject to termination in the event of an uncured material breach of either party and renewable for one year terms thereafter. Our third-party technology licenses are typically for a term of one to two years, with optional renewal clauses upon mutual agreement of the parties.
We also rely upon certain unpatented proprietary manufacturing expertise, licensed third-party technologies, continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position. For certain of our proprietary know-how and processes, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality and invention agreements to safeguard our interests. We believe that many elements of our system, including technical processes, equipment and system designs, algorithms and procedures, which relate to our software controls, manufacturing process and methods of system design involve proprietary know-how, technology or data that are not covered by patents or patent applications. We have taken security measures to protect these elements. For example, all of our research and development personnel are required to enter into proprietary information and inventions agreements with us. These agreements address intellectual property protection issues and require our employees to assign to us all of the inventions, designs and technologies they develop during the course of employment with us. We also require our customers and business partners to enter into non-disclosure agreements before we disclose any sensitive aspects of our technology, proprietary processes, sales data or business plans.

Government regulation
The legal environment of the Internet is evolving rapidly in the United States and around the world. The manner in which existing laws and regulations will be applied to the Internet in general, and how they will relate to our business in particular, are often unclear in many cases. For example, we often cannot be certain how existing laws will apply in the e-commerce and online context, including with respect to such topics as privacy, defamation, pricing, credit card fraud, advertising, taxation, sweepstakes, promotions, content regulation, quality of products and services and intellectual property ownership and infringement.
The nature of our user-generated content business models present legal challenges to our business and operations. Our content usage policies and policies surrounding infringement of intellectual property rights or the rights of third parties, such as rights of privacy and publicity, play a key role in our business operations and the systems and practices that support them are particularly important to our business, operations and reputation. Both in the United States and internationally, we must monitor and comply with a host of legal concerns regarding the content-based nature of our business. As an e-commerce platform, the scope of liability for third-party content uploaded to our site for sale on printed products requires analysis of varying definitions of political speech, hate speech, pornography, profanity and obscenity, among other speech-related concerns. We likewise must monitor our e-commerce platform for potential and alleged intellectual property infringement and violation of rights of privacy and publicity that can vary widely between countries and regions, and, accordingly, we frequently must navigate the legal and regulatory schemes of numerous countries outside the United States. Our ability to employ processes to quickly remove infringing or offending content from our automated upload website is an important tool in protecting us from exposure for the potentially infringing activities of our users worldwide.
Numerous laws and regulatory schemes have been adopted at the national and state level in the United States, and in some cases internationally, have a direct impact on our business and operations. These laws include the following:
The Copyright Act of 1976 and all of the statutes and regulations associated with and enforced by the United States Patent and Trademark Office which protect the rights of third parties from infringement by users of our service. We maintain an automated service whereby users can upload any content they designate for use in creating customized products, but we likewise maintain content usage policies that prohibit intellectual property rights infringement or infringement of the rights of others, including rights of privacy and publicity. We maintain a robust Intellectual Property Rights policy and a proactive support operation which responds to and manages take-down requests and other concerns relating to third-party intellectual property that might appear on our sites despite policies forbidding the practice. As our business expands to other countries, we must respond to regional and country-specific intellectual property considerations, including take down and cease and desist notices in foreign languages and we must continue to build infrastructure to support these processes globally.
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which provides relief for claims of infringement as it relates to circumvention of copyright protected technologies, but also includes a safe harbor intended to reduce the liability of online service providers for listing or linking to third-party websites that include materials that infringe copyrights or other rights of others. We maintain DMCA-complaint practices for notice and take-down as well as other required practices such as repeat offender management.
The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 and similar laws adopted by a number of states, which regulate unsolicited commercial e-mails, create criminal penalties for unmarked sexually-oriented material and e-mails containing fraudulent headers and control other abusive online marketing practices. Similarly, the guidelines of the Federal Trade Commission

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imposes responsibilities upon us for communications with respect to consumers and imposes fines and liability for failure to comply with rules with respective advertising or marketing practices they may deem misleading or deceptive. Further, the European Union, or the E.U., also maintains standards and regulations with respect to communications with consumers that we must comply with as we expand our marketing practices into those countries.
Numerous product safety and environmental regulations that apply to the manufacture, sale and distribution of products and apply to our products and services to varying degrees based on the individual types of products sold through our portfolio of e-commerce websites and the inks used in our decorating processes. These regulations include, without limitation, the Consumer Product Safety Act, The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, California Proposition 65, the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010, as well as a number of other federal and state product safety and environmental regulatory schemes. Product safety regulations applicable to the E.U. in particular, where the majority of our international sales is currently shipped, are often more stringent than those in the United States and we therefore must evaluate and test applicable products to E.U. standards with respect to products intended for distribution in those markets.
The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act) and other state laws and regulations that relate to credit card and gift certificate use fairness, including expiration dates and fees, as well as state laws surrounding escheat and abandonment of unclaimed property.
In the United States and internationally, we must evaluate tax liabilities from transactions on our portfolio of e-commerce websites and maintain finance infrastructure to support the collection and remittance of applicable sales taxes. In the United States, sales tax nexus issues with respect to Internet sales to consumers in states where we do not have a physical presence, which create potential nexus through affiliate program marketing activities and other nascent efforts to imply tax nexus on royalties payable on content licenses. This continues to be an area of great uncertainty and legal scrutiny both on a federal and state level, with over 27 states evaluating or imposing new legislation on various e-commerce activities or engaging in lawsuits with e-retailers. In Europe, we must comply with regulations with respect to customs, duties and V.A.T. as they apply to our business, sometimes on a country-by-country basis, which requires complex tracking and remittance processes.
The Communications Decency Act of 1996, which gives statutory protection to online service providers for claims against interactive computer services providers who distribute third-party content.
The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998, which restricts the distribution of certain materials deemed harmful to children and imposes additional restrictions on the ability of online services to collect user information from minors. In addition, the Protection of Children From Sexual Predators Act of 1998 requires online service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child pornography laws under certain circumstances.
Data privacy and security with respect to the collection of personally identifiable consumer information continues to be a focus of worldwide legislation and compliance review. Examples include statutes adopted by the State of California that require online services to report certain breaches of the security of personal data, and to report to California customers when their personal data might be disclosed to direct marketers. In the E.U., where U.S. companies must meet certain privacy and security standards, the Data Protection Directive requires comprehensive information privacy and security protections for consumers with respect to certain information collected about them. Compliance levels include disclosures, consents, transfer restrictions, notice and access provisions for which we may in the future need to build further infrastructure to further support.
We expect and plan for new laws and regulations to be adopted over time that will be directly applicable to the Internet and to our activities. Any existing or new legislation applicable to our business could expose us to substantial liability, including significant expenses necessary to comply with such laws and regulations and potential penalties or fees for non-compliance, and could negatively impact the growth in the use of the Internet in general and our services in particular. We may also run the risk of retroactive application of new laws to our business practices that could result in liability or losses. As we continue to expand further into international territories, we expect the above-noted regulatory issues to also apply to such expansion as well as new issues to arise. Although we cannot presently anticipate all of the laws and regulations that might be applicable in new countries that we enter, we expect that legal issues applicable to our business in those countries will continue to arise as we assess and evaluate the scope of our operations in such countries.

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We post on our website our privacy policies and practices concerning the use and disclosure of user data. Any failure by us to comply with our posted privacy policies, Federal Trade Commission requirements or other privacy-related laws and regulations could result in proceedings by governmental or regulatory bodies that could potentially harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. In this regard, there are a large number of legislative proposals before the United States Congress and various state legislative bodies regarding privacy issues related to our business. It is not possible to predict whether or when such legislation may be adopted, and certain proposals, if adopted, could harm our business through a decrease in user registrations and revenues. These decreases could be caused by, among other possible provisions, the required use of disclaimers or other requirements before users can utilize our services.
Due to the global nature of the Internet, it is possible that the governments of other states and foreign countries might attempt to change previous regulatory schemes or choose to regulate its transmissions or prosecute us for violations of their laws. We might unintentionally violate such laws, such laws may be modified and new laws may be enacted in the future. Any such developments could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. We may be subject to legal liability for our online services. The law relating to the liability of providers of these online services for activities of their users is currently unsettled both within the United States and abroad. Due to the nature of our content-rich automated upload service, claims are frequently alleged or asserted against us for trademark and copyright infringement and violation of rights of publicity to which we rapidly and expeditiously respond. We maintain content usage review systems that, through a combination of manual and automated blocks, monitor potentially infringing content of which we become aware. Nevertheless, claims may continue to be brought and threatened against us for negligence, copyright or trademark infringement, or other theories based on the nature and content of information, its origin and its distribution and there is no guarantee that we will be able to resolve any such claims quickly and without damage to us, our business model, our reputation or our operations.

Raw Materials and Suppliers
We work with a wide range of suppliers which provide raw materials, primarily ink, and blank inventory for customization. We currently believe that we have multiple sources for the various types of raw materials and blank inventory used in our business, and are therefore not dependent on a single source. We have historically worked with, and currently expect to continue to work with, two primary suppliers for apparel inventory, Hanesbrands, Inc. and Sun Apparel, but have access to many additional and alternative apparel suppliers. With respect to raw materials used in the printing process, we work with a number of suppliers, primarily digital printing equipment manufacturers, for the inks used in our digital printing processes, and have access to multiple alternate suppliers for ink. We do not have long-term supply agreements with any of our suppliers.
We believe the successful management of our supplier relationships is a key aspect of our business. We source our blank products from domestic and foreign manufacturers and distributors. Our current suppliers may not continue to sell merchandise to us on terms acceptable to us, and we may be unable to establish new or extend current supplier relationships to ensure a steady supply of blank inventory in a timely and cost-efficient manner. Under some of our current supply agreements for blank inventory, we enjoy flexible policies for returning the unsold items to our suppliers. We also source raw materials, principally the inks used in many of our digital printing processes, from a variety of digital printing manufacturers. If we are unable to accurately predict demand for the products that we are committed to purchase, we will be responsible for covering the cost of the products that we are unable to sell.

Employees
As of December 31, 2015, within our continuing operations we had 357 full-time employees, including 173 in production and operations, 70 in engineering, 76 in sales and marketing and 38 in general and administrative.
In addition, each year during our fourth quarter, we hire significant numbers of short term seasonal employees through temporary staffing agencies. None of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We consider relations with our employees to be good and have never experienced a work stoppage.

Corporate and available information
CafePress Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in 1999. We completed an initial public offering of our common stock in April 2012 and our common stock is traded under the NASDAQ Global Select Market symbol “PRSS.” We maintain our headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky as well as a satellite office housing certain marketing, development, and finance personnel in Hayward, California.

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Our website is www.cafepressinc.com and our website's investor relations page is investor.cafepress.com. We make available free of charge, on or through our website's investor relations page, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, if any, or other filings filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after electronically filing or furnishing these reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Information contained on our website is not a part of this report. We have adopted a code of ethics applicable to our senior financial officers which is available free of charge, on or through our website’s investor relations page.
The SEC maintains an Internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports, if any, or other filings filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, proxy and information statements. All reports that we file with the SEC may be read and copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC, 20549. Information about the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
This Report contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risk factors set forth below, and this Report should be read in conjunction with such risk factors. The risks and uncertainties described in this Report are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business. If any of these known or unknown risks or uncertainties actually occur and have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial condition and results of operations could be seriously harmed.

Risks related to our business
Our results of operations are subject to significant quarterly and other fluctuations due to a number of factors that could adversely affect our business and, as a result, the trading price of our common stock.
Our revenues and operating results may fluctuate from period to period and are likely to continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, some beyond our control. Factors relating to our business and its operations that may contribute to these fluctuations include the following:

seasonality of our revenues, including shifts in the timing and length of holiday selling seasons;
macroeconomic cycles and consumer discretionary spending;
demand for our user-designed products and services and the growth rate of the print-on-demand and e-commerce industry overall;
fluctuations in sales and marketing costs, including website traffic acquisition costs and our ability to maintain or increase such traffic cost-effectively;
market acceptance and competitiveness of our products and services on quality and pricing, and current competitors and new competitive entrants to the market for customized goods in our channels of distribution and marketing;
the gain, loss, success, or delay of significant strategic relationships and partner programs;
the development of, or changes to, new technologies and platforms for Internet use, such as mobile, and evolving marketing methods such as social media, flash promotions and any changes in website traffic acquisition algorithms, policies or practices supporting such development;
conversion rates of website traffic, including the impact on conversion rates from increased traffic from mobile devices as compared to desktops or tablets;
our ability to provide accurate search results and recommendations and to deliver long-tail content to our e-commerce partners;
litigation and associated risks and expenses, including extraordinary expenses related to litigation and settlement costs;
concerns about the data security of consumer personal information run through our e-commerce services and their vulnerability to attack and intrusions;
any production issues which may in turn result in delayed orders or increased costs; and
fluctuations in the cost of raw materials and inventory.

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As a result of these and other factors, the results of any prior quarterly or annual periods should not be relied upon as indications of our future revenues or operating performance. In particular, due to the seasonality of our business, our revenues in the first three quarters of each year are generally substantially lower than our revenues in the fourth quarter of the preceding year, and we expect this trend to continue for the foreseeable future.
We may not achieve or sustain profitability or avoid net losses in the future. Our growth rates in the future, if any, may fluctuate or not be sustainable or may decrease. In addition, our ability to be profitable depends in the foreseeable future on our ability to control our costs and operating expenses. We have incurred in the past, and expect to continue to incur in future periods, stock-based compensation expense, which will reduce our net income and may result in future losses. If we fail to increase revenues at the rate we anticipate or if our costs and operating expenses increase without a commensurate increase in our revenues, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be negatively affected.
A future downturn in our business, slow or no growth of new business opportunities, or a sustained decline in our stock price may result in an impairment of goodwill or intangible assets, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We perform an analysis of our goodwill balances to test for impairment on an annual basis or whenever events occur that may indicate impairment possibly exists. We evaluate our finite-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset is impaired or the estimated useful lives are no longer appropriate. Goodwill is deemed to be impaired if the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value. The impairment of a long-lived intangible asset other than goodwill is only deemed to have occurred if the sum of the forecasted undiscounted future cash flows related to the asset is less than the carrying value of the intangible asset we are testing for impairment.
As of December 31, 2015, we had goodwill of $20.9 million. Goodwill impairment analysis and measurement is a process that requires significant judgment. In addition to our annual goodwill impairment test at July 1, 2015, we have carried out additional goodwill impairment tests as of March 31, 2015, June 30, 2015, and September 1, 2015 due to the divestiture of our Art, Groups, and EZ Prints businesses in the first nine months of 2015. These tests have indicated that there was no impairment as of those dates. Our stock price has declined since our September 1, 2015 impairment test. We consider this decline temporary in nature as there were no material changes in our operations that caused such decline. Financial and credit market volatility directly impacts fair value measurement through our company’s estimated weighted average cost of capital used to determine discount rate, and through our common stock price that is used to determine market capitalization. During times of volatility, significant judgment must be applied to determine whether credit or stock price changes are a short-term swing or a longer-term trend. continued adverse market conditions could have a further impact on the fair value of our reporting unit that could result in future impairments of goodwill, intangible and other long-lived assets.
A sustained decline in our stock price and resulting market capitalization, delays in expected new business opportunities associated with retail distribution channels and our CafePress Services partnerships, unforeseen losses of any significant existing retail distribution channel partners, our inability to achieve planned profitability improvements in 2016 or beyond, or significant changes to our profitability resulting from the risk factors mentioned above or throughout this section, could result in impairment of a material amount of our $20.9 million goodwill balance in the future. In addition, any future downturn in our business, slower than expected growth of new business opportunities associated with retail distribution channels or our CafePress Services partnerships, failure to achieve planned profitability improvements in the future, changes in market conditions or a sustained decline in the market price of our stock may result in an impairment of goodwill and the recognition of resulting expenses in future periods, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our results of operations for those periods.
We depend heavily on the continued success of our core business of selling user-designed products on CafePress.com, and any event that adversely affects our sales of user-designed products could harm our business and results of operations.
A significant proportion of our revenue is derived from the online sale of user-designed products through CafePress.com and through distribution channels derived therefrom. As a result, the continued performance of our marketplace is dependent on continued flow of user-generated content into the creation of products. We expect that the sales of user-generated design products will continue to comprise a majority of the revenue of our business. Our users rarely exclusively use our e-commerce platform to sell their designs. Users who design products may choose not to use our e-commerce platform to create and sell their designs, and choose other platforms, thereby reducing the number of designs available through our websites and thus affecting future growth of our marketplace revenue. Customers who purchase user-designed products on our websites may also purchase other fulfillment and partner products through our e-commerce services as well, which aid the growth of our services. Our tools and platform offerings may not remain competitive with those of our competitors. If competitive services increase and/or we cannot successfully attract or retain users to design and sell products through our e-commerce platform or if we are unable to attract and retain our customers for user-designed and other products, our operating results may suffer. If we are unable to grow our core business or

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otherwise grow the core business through the additional e-commerce services noted, our business and our operating results could be harmed.
The seasonality of our business increases strain on our operations and if we are unable to scale sufficiently to support our operations during periods of peak demand, our business could suffer.
A significant portion of our net revenues and operating cash flows have historically been realized during the period from November through December each year, primarily due to increased retail activity during the holiday seasons. Disruption in our ability to process, produce and fulfill customer orders in the fourth quarter could have a negative effect on our quarterly and annual operating results. As described in our Management’s Discussion & Analysis, in anticipation of increased fourth quarter sales activity, we typically incur significant incremental expenses prior to and during peak selling seasons, particularly October through December, including the costs associated with hiring a substantial number of temporary employees to supplement our existing workforce. If we are unable to hire enough qualified employees to support our production or customer service operations or if there is a disruption in the labor we hire from our third-party providers, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, if too many customers access our websites within a short period of time due to increased holiday demand or other periods of peak demand, we may experience system delays or interruptions that make our websites unavailable or prevent us from efficiently fulfilling orders, which may reduce the volume of goods we sell and the attractiveness of our products and services. This in turn could harm our business, operating results and reputation. Any disruption in our business operations or other factors that could lead to a material shortfall compared to our expectations for the fourth quarter could then result in a material shortfall compared to our expectations for the full year, have a disproportionate effect on our operating results and cause our stock price to decline.
Intense competitive pressures, particularly failure to meet consumers’ price expectations, may harm our business and results of operations.
Demand for our products and services may be impacted by consumer price sensitivity. Many external factors, including our production and personnel costs, the cost of raw materials, particularly the price of cotton, content selection or consumer sentiment or spending, available product mix and our competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies, can significantly impact our pricing strategies. If we fail to meet consumers’ price expectations, we could lose customers or fail to attract new customers, which would harm our business and results of operations.
Changes in our pricing strategies across channels have had, and may continue to have, a significant impact on our revenues and net income. We frequently make changes to our pricing structure in order to remain competitive, but that may result in lower profit margins. Most of our products are also offered by our competitors. In particular, competitive offerings in apparel have put pressure on pricing and increasingly impacted sales performance in that product category. If in the future, we significantly reduce prices on our products without a corresponding increase in volume or decrease in cost of goods sold, or raise prices without maintaining the volume of goods sold, it would negatively impact our revenues and could adversely affect our gross margins and overall profitability.
We generate a portion of our revenues from the fees we collect from shipping our products. We frequently offer discounted or free shipping, with minimum purchase requirements during promotional periods, to attract and retain customers. We also frequently offer coupons, promotional marketing giveaways and free or discounted products and services as a method to attract and retain customers, and such instances are generally unable to recoup shipping costs in such programs. In the future, if we continue to increase these coupon practices and discounted shipping offers to attract and retain customers and/or in response to actions taken by our competitors, our results of operations may be harmed.
We face intense competition and if we do not compete successfully against existing and new competitors, we may lose market share and customers.
The market for customized products and services is large, fragmented and intensely competitive and we expect competition to continue to increase in the future. Demand for customized products has increased, but so have competitive offerings in all of our product categories. We face competition from a wide range of companies, including the following:

small traditional offline printing businesses;
e-commerce companies, including large online retailers such as Amazon.com, Inc., Walmart.com, Target and eBay Inc. (who may also serve as our distribution partners);

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online providers of customized products such as Custom Ink LLC, RedBubble, Inc., Spreadshirt, Inc., Teespring, Threadless.com, or Zazzle Inc. and online providers of distinctive goods like Etsy, Inc. or Uncommon Goods;
online providers allowing users to customize goods in specific vertical markets, such as Vistaprint N.V. for small businesses and Shutterfly, Inc., or SmugMug, Inc., for photographic products, or Minted, Inc., Smilebox Inc. or Blurb, Inc. for specific stationery and book products, and Art.com for wall art products;
physical and catalog retailers of personalized merchandise such as American Stationery, Red Envelope and Things Remembered; and
small, but numerous, online providers who address niche customization service and product offerings, enabled by advances in digital printing.
We also indirectly compete with Internet portals and shopping search engines that are involved in e-commerce or sell products or services either directly or in collaboration with other retailers. If more companies move into the customized products space, we will face further direct competition. Our reliance on Internet search engines and other sources of Internet and referral traffic to our e-commerce sites, such as Google, Bing and Facebook, impacts both the way we do business and our performance against competitors. Changes to their practices could drive traffic to our competitors and away from our e-commerce sites in ways we may not anticipate or that will cause us to expend further resources to successfully compete. The shift to mobile site access for e-commerce sites also presents challenges for us as we cope with shifting traffic patterns. Some of our current and potential competitors have significantly greater financial, marketing and other resources than us, including significant brand recognition, sales volume and customer bases. In addition, other online retailers may be acquired by, receive investment from or enter into strategic relationships with well-established and well-financed companies or investors which would strengthen their competitive positions.
Some of our competitors may be able to secure licensing deals, goods and raw materials from suppliers on more favorable terms, devote greater resources to marketing activities and promotional campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing policies and devote substantially more resources to website and system development than us. Increased competition may reduce our operating margins, market share and brand recognition, or force us to incur losses. We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors. Competitive pressures may harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business depends heavily on the market recognition and reputation of our services, and any harm to our brand or failure to maintain and enhance our brand recognition may materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing the recognition and reputation of the level of services associated with our brand is critical to our success and ability to compete. Many factors, some of which are beyond our control, are important to maintaining and enhancing our services and may negatively impact our reputation if not properly managed, such as:

our ability to maintain a convenient and reliable user experience as consumer preferences evolve for varying multi-channel experiences;
our ability to increase brand awareness among existing and potential strategic distribution channels, corporate partners and consumers through various means of marketing and promotional activities;
our ability to retain and expand our network of buyers and sellers through developing Internet communication methods, such as mobile platforms and social media channels;
the efficiency, reliability and quality of our products, services and retail websites, or marketplace, experiences; and
our ability to protect personally identifiable information and credit card data and perceived weaknesses in data privacy or security practices or product quality problems of our service or other e-commerce websites.
In developing our strategic distribution model, we have relied heavily on the reputation and brand awareness of the company’s historic operations. In relying on such distribution partners to fuel revenue growth, we are in turn relying on the continued impact of our brand with such retail and corporate partners.
If we are unable to maintain our reputation, further enhance our brand recognition and increase positive awareness of our websites, our results of operations and business may suffer.

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If we are unable to attract customers or increase Internet traffic to our websites and manage changes in the manner by which customers access of our websites in a cost-effective manner or at all, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
Our success depends on our ability to attract customers to our websites. We rely on a variety of methods to draw visitors to our websites and promote our products and services, such as Internet search engine marketing, email marketing, affiliate networks, social media outlets and flash deal promotions through various new types of group and socially curated e-commerce websites. We pay providers of online services, search engines and other websites and e-commerce businesses to provide content, marketing links, advertising banners and other links that direct customers to our websites. If these providers modify or terminate their relationship with us or increase the price they charge us or if our competitors offer them greater fees for traffic, our expenses could rise and traffic to our websites could decrease, which in turn would harm our revenue and results of operations.
We also devote substantial resources to optimizing our websites to increase the likelihood of our products and services appearing in unpaid search engine results; however there can be no assurance that these efforts will be successful. If our products and services receive low placement or do not appear within the listings of search engine results in response to relevant search queries, this could result in fewer customers clicking through to our websites, requiring us to resort to other more costly resources to replace this traffic. Search engines including Google, Yahoo! and Bing frequently refine and modify their search algorithms that determine placement of our relevant search queries. If we are unable to maintain or increase traffic to our websites, including through accurate search results and recommendations, our products or services receive low placement or do not appear due to changes in search engine algorithms, such changes could negatively impact the effectiveness of our search engine optimization or search engine marketing, and our business and financial performance would be adversely affected, potentially very materially. If our conversion rates decline, whether due to increased traffic from mobile devices or otherwise, our business and operating results could suffer.
We also promote our products and special offers through emails targeted to potential customers and our site members. However, if our customers deem such emails and other promotions to be intrusive, we could be forced to discontinue or significantly curtail our email marketing activities. In addition, we engage in flash promotions through websites, such as Amazon Local and LivingSocial. Such promotions involve significantly discounted product offers to customers with the goal of driving traffic to our websites for customer acquisitions and repeat purchases. Due to the low profit margin associated with the deep discounts offered to purchasers of such offers and the widespread availability of similar group buy offers by other e-commerce competitors, the flash promotions we choose to implement may not accomplish our long-term goal of customer acquisition in a cost-effective manner.
We continue to develop ways to optimize the consumer experience on our websites, products and services through mobile devices, which provide particular challenges given the graphics intensive user experience involved in shopping, creating and selling content based products online. If we are not able to successfully translate our websites for mobile use and traffic from mobile devices continues to accelerate at current rates, our results of operations may be impacted.
Lastly, we have terminated and expect to continue to terminate a number of affiliate marketing partners in states that have imposed sales tax nexus for such marketing activities, and to the extent we determine it prudent to continue to do so, we may be unable to achieve our strategic goals in those channels. If we are unable to develop or maintain an effective and cost efficient means of reaching content providers and consumers, if the costs of attracting customers using these methods significantly increase, or if we are unable to develop new cost-effective means to obtain customers, then our ability to attract new and repeat customers would be harmed, traffic to our websites would be reduced and our business and results of operations would be harmed.
Our strategy with respect to content acquisition may adversely affect our financial condition and future financial results.
We obtain content for our websites and our products from multiple sources, including our user designers, to whom we may pay fees on any subsequent sales of products created with such content. We also rely on entertainment, publishing and corporate content provider sources to generate content for our products and services. Due to designer relationship issues, including compensation provided by us compared to that provided by our competitors, users may decrease or cease providing content to our websites in the future. We face challenges in managing the payment infrastructure and taxation implications of these transactions and expect to continue to do so in the future as competitive pressures or new regulatory or other issues arise.
In connection with obtaining entertainment and other media content, we sometimes enter into multi-year, royalty- based licenses with content owners and production organizations for film and television and other media distributors. To date, we have largely been able to obtain those licenses without paying significant advance royalty payments but there is no guarantee that these licensors will renew their license agreements on the same or reasonable terms. Our competitors may be successful in obtaining exclusive licenses for content we wish to obtain for our site, making such content unavailable to us now or in the future. We may also, as we have in the past, enter into agreements with content providers that contain exclusivity provisions that may restrict our ability to sell certain products or in certain geographies or to partner with certain content providers. In order to compete effectively for

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these licenses, we could be forced to pay higher royalties or agree to significant advance payments. Our results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of these content licensing payment commitments in the event that sales or revenue growth do not meet our expectations. In addition, our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the market segments in which we operate could be limited.
In connection with the selection and popularity of specific content, we employ licensing and business development professionals and Internet traffic analysts who evaluate popular culture trends and potential properties to support the content on our site and drive traffic to it. To the extent they are unsuccessful in identifying or obtaining content sources that will be popular with consumers and that will generate sales of our products, our results could materially be harmed. To the extent the content we do choose to obtain proves unpopular or unsuccessful and we have agreed to contractual minimums, we may not achieve the planned return on royalty advances and may incur losses or impairment charges.
If any of the above circumstances increase the cost of obtaining content, our margins may suffer.
If we are unable to market and sell products and services beyond our existing target markets and develop new products and services to attract new customers and new strategic partnerships and business relationships, our results of operations may suffer.
We believe we will need to address additional markets and sales channels, and attract new business partners, content providers and consumers to grow our business. To access new sales channels, we must build and maintain new processes in which to feed our product catalogues to corporate distribution partners. To access new markets and consumers, we will need to develop, market and sell new products and services. There is no guarantee we will be successful in this expansion. We continually seek to offer our array of e-commerce customization and products and services to new customers in existing channels and to expand the reach of our distribution channel partnerships. If we are unsuccessful in expanding the scope of those relationships, we may not grow our operations and businesses as fast as we would like.
Any failure to develop new products and services, or a lack of adoption of the new products and services we do develop to expand our business beyond our existing target markets or to address additional market opportunities could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As we continue to expand our new strategic and sales channel partnerships, our dependence on third parties for the generation of significant revenue growth increases. Partners may make changes to their technology or product road maps or choose to enter the customization business themselves and we thus may have little control over those strategic choices.
If we are unable to manage scale or growth of our business or to execute our strategies effectively, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
We anticipate that we will need to continue to implement new and upgraded operational and financial systems, procedures and controls, including the improvement of our accounting, legal and other internal management and control systems. We will need to continue to expand, recruit, train, manage and motivate our workforce and manage our relationships with existing and new business partners, suppliers, third-party service providers and content providers. Our strategies also include streamlining our product and service offerings, which will require us to work with different groups of suppliers and address the needs of different kinds of consumers. We may incur significant costs in trying to expand our offerings into these new areas or fail to successfully execute the roll-out of these new offerings. All of these endeavors involve risks and require substantial management effort and significant additional expenditures. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage our growth or execute our strategies effectively, and any failure to do so may have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects, as well as our operating results.
Our business may be adversely affected by transitions in our senior management team or by our inability to effectively handle any future succession planning.
We are highly dependent on the executive leadership of members of our senior management and key employees as our success depends, in large part, on their continued contributions and strategic vision. In addition, we have not entered into long-term employment agreements or non-compete agreements with members of our senior management team. Our employees can terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of members of our senior management team or key personnel could harm our ability to implement our business strategy and respond to the rapidly changing market conditions in which we operate.

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If we are unable to attract, train, integrate and retain qualified personnel with relevant corporate, industry and operational expertise, we may be unable to effectively execute our business plan or maintain or, in the future, expand our operations, which in turn would harm our business.
Our future success will depend in part on our ability to retain key managers or employees and to identify, hire and retain additional personnel to support our business and its growth. Our finance, legal and engineering staff are key to the maintenance of our compliance and public company status. Our retail e-commerce sites depend on the sales and marketing talent of our retail operations staff. Our production facilities also depend on skilled personnel trained in our proprietary printing and production techniques and others knowledgeable about back end operations of the online retail industry. Our future success depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to attract, train, integrate and retain qualified personnel with relevant experience and skill sets. Recruiting and retaining capable personnel, particularly those with expertise in the retail, e-commerce and printing industries, is vital to our success. If we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel for each of our e-commerce sites, our business may suffer.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of our recent divestitures or of any prior or future divestitures or acquisitions, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.
We completed the divestitures of our Arts and Groups businesses in March 2015 and our EZ Prints business in September 2015 as part of our previously announced review of strategic alternatives. We may not fully realize the anticipated benefits, if any, of these divestitures, such as streamlining our business and enabling us to focus more resources on strengthening our core business.
In addition, we have previously engaged in acquisition opportunities, including businesses of which we have subsequently divested ourselves as discussed above. We may be unable to successfully integrate any businesses that we may acquire in the future or may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of any such acquisitions. The successful integration of any acquired business as well as the retention of personnel require significant attention from our management and could divert resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not achieve the anticipated benefits we expect due to a number of factors including: unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition, incurrence of acquisition-related costs, harm to our relationships with existing customers as a result of the acquisition, harm to our brand and reputation, the loss of key employees in the acquired businesses, use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business, and use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition. In addition, our ability to impose appropriate internal controls, including accurate forecasting, accounting integration of inventory, costs and reporting, to successfully manage these businesses requires significant investments of resources and management time. Finally, acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, earn-outs, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. In some of our prior acquisitions, earn-out targets were not achieved and in some instances either disputes occurred or modifications were made. We may enter into other modifications or settlements of certain acquisition terms over time which could result in cash payments, potentially dilutive issuances, goodwill impairment charges and other potential unknown liabilities. Failure to realize the anticipated benefits of our divestitures, or of any prior or future acquisitions, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects.
If we fail to successfully identify and respond to constantly changing consumer preferences, adopt new technologies or adapt our websites and systems to customer requirements or emerging industry standards, our business, prospects and financial results may be materially and adversely affected.
The e-commerce and retail industries as well as the content-provider industry are subject to ever changing trends and consumer preferences. Consequently, we must anticipate emerging consumer trends for customized retail merchandise that will appeal to existing and potential consumers both with base products and licensed and user-generated content. If our consumers cannot find their desired products on or service through our websites, they may stop visiting our websites, visit less often or stop purchasing products on our websites or seek out our competitors’ services. If we do not anticipate, identify and respond effectively to consumer preferences and changes in consumer trends at an early stage, we may not be able to generate the desired level of sales. Likewise, we must anticipate and capitalize on trends in user-generated content and popular culture that will continue to drive consumer interest in our websites.
Internet business models and the online content distribution generally are characterized by rapid technological evolution, changes in user requirements and preferences, frequent introductions of new products and services embodying new technologies and the emergence of new industry standards and practices. To remain competitive, we must continue to enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and features of our websites and systems. Such systems include complex interactions of our proprietary software tools, such as designer and builder software and content review tools, data storage and reporting, order management and plant printing automation software. Like all systems, failures or errors made in the maintenance or operation of those systems

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could lead to operational and logistics challenges or lost, cancelled or delayed orders, which in turn could lead customers to make alternative choices in a provider of custom goods. The development of our websites and other proprietary technology entails significant technical and business risks. We may be unable to use new technologies or systems to effectively adapt our websites, proprietary technologies and transaction-processing systems to customer requirements or emerging industry standards. If we are unable to adapt in a cost-effective and timely manner in response to changing market conditions or customer requirements, whether for technical, legal, financial or other reasons, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
If we are unable to successfully address the rapidly evolving market for transactions on mobile devices, our results of operations may suffer.
Mobile devices are increasingly used for e-commerce transactions. A significant and growing portion of our users access our platforms through mobile devices. We may lose users if we are not able to continue to meet our users’ mobile and multi-screen experience expectations. The variety of technical and other configurations across different mobile devices and platforms increases the challenges associated with this environment. In addition, a number of other companies with significant resources and a number of innovative startups have introduced products and services focusing on mobile markets.
Our ability to successfully address the challenges posed by the rapidly evolving market for mobile transactions is crucial to our continued success, and any failure to continuously increase the volume of mobile transactions effected through our platforms could harm our business.
Our business model focuses on user-generated content and as a result, controversial political and social expressions appear on our site that may impact our brand name or with which current or potential customers or business partners may not wish to be associated.
We have built our business by providing consumers an outlet for self-expression through unique or customized goods that they can share with their friends, their communities and the world. Our service is often used for the expression of political and cause-related issues that may generate strong opinions on many sides of a given issue, including in other customers and potentially with the business partners who supply us with content or inventory and to those who choose to invest in our company. As a result, our websites frequently attract the attention of media outlets that may not understand the user-generated nature of our business model and attribute sentiments expressed by our users to our company or its management team. Additionally, because our service provides a platform for the expression of controversial ideas and humor, our site could be the target of negative social media or petition campaigns, computer attacks or boycotts by well-organized special interest groups or filtered by foreign countries, which may adversely impact our growth and operations. Our distribution and channel partners may likewise become uncomfortable with aspects of our user-generated content business model in light of their own content usage policies and may cut back or refuse to display our products or otherwise limit our merchandising opportunities thus impacting our results of operations. We believe we must maintain a balance among the encouragement of self-expression in our users that creates a content-rich experience, the needs and concerns of our business partners and our mutual desire to protect our brand and our companies. If we fail to maintain this balance and lose partners, customers, or potential customers due to judgments made about the content on our websites, or conversely if we alienate corporate partners or businesses who wish to employ our customization services for their content or products without fear of negative reflection on their brand images, we risk damage to our brand and reputation and ultimately our business and results of operations.
Because our sales and revenues rely on consumer spending of discretionary income, uncertain macroeconomic conditions in the United States and world economies may materially and adversely affect our financial results.
The majority of our revenues are generated from sales through our consumer e-commerce websites and our customized products are largely found in categories of consumer goods that would be deemed non-essentials. As a result, our sales are driven largely by discretionary consumer spending habits and preferences. Historically, consumer purchasing on discretionary items declines during economic downturns and periods of uncertainty regarding future economic prospects or when disposable income or consumer lending is lower. While not always directly related to actual consumer behavior, macro-economic conditions such as global currency and debt concerns, stock market volatility, levels of unemployment, increased fuel or commodity prices and transportation costs, and conditions in the commercial consumer lending and housing markets, among other factors, fuel uncertainty over future macro-economic conditions and prospects of a prolonged recessionary spending climate. Many other factors contribute to economic conditions in the U.S., including taxation and distribution concerns. Deterioration of macroeconomic conditions in the near term or long term, or the perception that such deterioration might occur, could reduce demand for our products either temporarily or in the long term. Our revenues could likewise decline and our results could be materially and adversely affected by such trends. Our ability to anticipate, identify and respond quickly to consumer spending pressures and prevailing economic conditions will be

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challenged if such economic uncertainties continue or particularly during peak periods for our sales that historically have occurred in our fiscal fourth quarter.
The proper functioning of our websites is essential to our business and any failure to maintain the satisfactory performance, security and integrity of our websites will materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations.
The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our websites, our marketing activities, our transaction-processing systems and our network infrastructure are critical to our success. Our revenues depend on the number of visitors who shop on our websites and the volume of orders we fulfill. Any system delays, interruptions or disruptions to our servers caused by telecommunications failures, computer viruses, physical break-ins, domain attacks, hacking or other attempts to harm our systems or servers that result in the unavailability or slowdown of our websites, loss of data or reduced order fulfillment performance would reduce the volume of products sold and the attractiveness of product offerings on our websites. We may also experience interruptions caused by reasons beyond our control.
We use internally developed systems for all aspects of transaction processing, including order management, content review and purchasing and inventory management. We rely on third-party providers for debit card and credit card processing services, other payment services and shipping. We periodically upgrade and expand our systems, and in the future, we intend to further upgrade and expand our systems and to integrate newly developed or purchased software with our existing systems to support increased transaction volume. Any inability to add additional software and hardware or to develop and upgrade our existing technology, transaction-processing systems or network infrastructure to accommodate increased traffic on our websites or increased sales volume through our transaction-processing systems may cause unanticipated system disruptions, slower response time, degradation in levels of customer service and impaired quality and speed of order fulfillment, which would cause our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations to suffer.
If our production and fulfillment operations are interrupted for any significant period of time or either facility where our computer and communications software or hardware is located fails, our business and results of operations would be substantially harmed.
Our success depends on our ability to successfully receive, produce and fulfill orders and to promptly and securely deliver our products to our customers, which in turn depends in part on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of our computer and communications systems. A significant portion of our production, inventory management, packaging, labeling and shipping processes are performed in a single production and fulfillment center located in Louisville, Kentucky and such single location reliance presents risks. In addition, substantially all of the computer hardware necessary to operate our principal websites is located at third-party hosting facilities in Las Vegas, Nevada and hosted through Amazon AWS. These facilities are susceptible to damage or interruption from human error, fire, flood, ice storms, power loss, insufficient power availability, telecommunications failure, terrorist attacks, acts of war, break-ins, earthquakes and similar events. In addition Louisville, Kentucky, our principal production site, is particularly susceptible to flooding and extreme weather patterns. Our production operations are dependent on order management and other automation software systems that may be especially subject to human error in programming.
We also maintain offices and operations in Northern California, an area where the risk of an earthquake is significant due to the proximity of major earthquake fault lines. Any catastrophic loss to any of these facilities would likely disrupt our operations, delay production, shipments and revenues and result in significant expenses to repair or replace the facility. Our business interruption insurance may be insufficient to compensate us for losses that may occur, particularly from interruption due to an earthquake, which is not covered under our current policy. Any interruptions in our production, fulfillment center or systems operations, particularly for any significant period of time, could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.
Shipment of merchandise sold in our marketplaces could be delayed or disrupted by factors beyond our control and we could lose buyers and sellers as a result.
We largely rely upon third-party carriers such as Federal Express, Inc., or FedEx, and United Parcel Service, or UPS, for timely delivery of our merchandise shipments, particularly in the United States where the majority of our sales occur. As a result, we are subject to carrier disruptions and increased costs due to factors that are beyond our control, including labor difficulties, inclement weather, terrorist activity and increased fuel costs. We do not have a long-term agreement with any other third-party carriers, and we cannot be sure that our relationships with FedEx or UPS will continue on terms favorable to us, if at all. If our shipping relationships are terminated or impaired or if our carriers are unable to deliver merchandise for us, we would be required to use

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alternative carriers for the shipment of products to our buyers. We may be unable to engage alternative carriers on a timely basis or on terms favorable to us, if at all. Potential adverse consequences include:

reduced visibility of integrated order status and package tracking;
delays in merchandise receipt and delivery;
increased cost of shipment; and
reduced shipment quality, which may result in damaged merchandise.
Any failure to receive merchandise at our distribution centers or deliver products to our buyers in a timely and accurate manner could lead to client dissatisfaction and cause us to lose sellers and buyers.
Many of our suppliers are located in regions that are subject to weather instability, earthquakes and other natural disasters.
The facilities of our third-party suppliers are subject to risk of catastrophic loss due to fire, flood or other natural or man-made disasters. The majority of our suppliers are located in the United States and China in areas with above-average catastrophic weather instability and seismic activity and which are subject to typhoons, tsunamis and other natural disasters. Additionally, since a significant portion of our revenues are attributed to cotton apparel and because we do not currently engage in any cotton or other commodity-related hedging activities, we are particularly susceptible to issues affecting the cotton growing and production industry. Any catastrophic loss to any of these facilities or disruptions in the production of cotton would likely disrupt our operations, delay production and shipments, and result in a delay or loss of revenues or cause us to incur significant expenses to repair or replace the facility or to purchase critical inventory for creation of our products.
If we become subject to liability for content that we print and distribute through our service, our results of operations would be adversely affected.
As an Internet service provider that prints content provided by others, we face allegations related to, and potential liability for, negligence, copyright or trademark infringement or other claims related to the goods created from user-generated uploads to our service. Intellectual property law for secondary liability for copyright infringement is particularly uncertain in many jurisdictions. We also may face allegations related to, and potential liability for, content uploaded from our users in connection with claims of defamation, racism, hate speech, obscenity or pornography that may be embodied in user expression. As globally available websites, we also receive inquiries about content that may be illegal or insensitive to cultural norms not only in the United States but worldwide, and those sensitivities may differ widely.
Despite our status as a service provider and not a publisher, we also face allegations of infringement and potential liability for negligence, copyright, patent or trademark infringement or other claims based on the nature and content of materials that we distribute. In addition, a number of our entertainment, publishing and corporate content providers impose limitations and conditions on our use of their licensed content, and our failure to implement and abide by these terms could result in our loss of these licenses, damages to our reputation and potential liability for breach of contract and copyright or trademark infringement. In particular, any legislative developments or litigation outcomes in copyright law under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that negatively impact our protections from liability for infringement could have consequences for us in our operations and increase litigation costs for the defense of any litigation that might arise due to such changes or developments.
We maintain strict content usage policies that are frequently evaluated and updated and we maintain processes that review uploaded content for compliance with our terms of service and other policies. We also require users uploading content to attest that they have all necessary rights to upload content to our service and further require such users to indemnify us in the event that claims are made against us relating to such content. We maintain a content review process that includes evaluation and take-down of uploaded content on our site that fails to meet our policies and compliance with all safe harbors under relevant laws. Nevertheless, we receive significant volumes of cease and desist demands on a regular basis with respect to claims of intellectual property infringement and violation of the rights of third parties, such as rights of privacy and publicity, and expect this may grow with the volume of content made available through our service. We maintain an active dispute resolution process for intellectual property rights claimants so that allegations of infringement can be resolved expeditiously. Notwithstanding our efforts to monitor and manage content and promptly resolve all issues, these measures may not be effective in removing violative content nor sufficient to shield us from potential liability, including situations where users do not have the financial ability to fully indemnify us against liabilities.

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Despite our status as a service provider and not a publisher, we are exposed to risks associated with varying laws in other jurisdictions, including heightened risk of secondary liability on defamation suits in the United Kingdom and increased statutory penalties available for alleged trademark infringement in Germany. Further, we maintain relationships with law enforcement agencies to manage issues related to child pornography or other illegal uses of our service and must monitor our services for such impermissible, unauthorized and illegal activities. We also may be subject to subpoenas or other law enforcement or regulatory requests for information about our users or our website’s services and the handling of such information requests may expose us to risk of suit from our users if not correctly and consistently managed in light of applicable law and consumer expectations of data privacy and judicial action or regulatory enforcement is not processed with appropriate alacrity.
Failure to protect confidential or personally identifiable information of our customers and our network against security breaches or failure to comply with privacy and security laws and regulations could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.
A significant challenge to e-commerce and communications is the secure transmission of confidential information over public networks. Our failure to prevent security breaches could damage our reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations. A majority of our sales are billed to our customers’ credit card accounts directly, orders are shipped to a customer’s address, and customers log on using their email address. In addition, some online payments for our products are settled through third-party online payment services. In such transactions, maintaining complete security for the transmission of confidential information on our websites, such as customers’ credit card numbers and expiration dates, personal information and billing addresses, is essential to maintain consumer confidence. We have limited influence over the security measures of third-party online payment service providers. In addition, we hold certain private information about our customers, such as their names, addresses, phone numbers and browsing and purchasing records.
We rely on encryption and authentication technology licensed from third parties to effect the secure transmission of certain confidential information, including credit card numbers and personally identifiable customer information. Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology used by us to protect customer transaction data. In addition, any party who is able to illicitly obtain a user’s password could potentially access the user’s transaction data or personal information. We may not be able to prevent third parties, such as hackers or criminal organizations, from stealing information provided by our customers to us through our websites. In addition, our third-party merchants and delivery service providers may violate their confidentiality obligations and disclose information about our customers. Any compromise of our security could damage our reputation and brand and expose us to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability, which would substantially harm our business and results of operations. In addition, anyone who is able to circumvent our security measures could misappropriate proprietary information or cause interruptions in our operations.
Significant capital and other resources may be required to protect against security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such breaches. While we maintain insurance coverage at levels we deem reasonable to manage liabilities relating to potential cyber-security risks, such coverage may be inadequate to cover all losses with respect to an actual breach. The methods used by hackers and others engaged in online criminal activity are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. Even if we are successful in adapting to and preventing new security breaches, any perception by the public that e-commerce and other online transactions, or the privacy of user information, are becoming increasingly unsafe or vulnerable to attack could inhibit the growth of e-commerce and other online services generally, which in turn may reduce the number of orders we receive. Any failure, or perception of failure, to protect the confidential information of our customers or our network could damage our reputation and harm our business.
We maintain industry standard privacy policies and practices with respect to the personally identifiable information of our users that we maintain. Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with our privacy policies or privacy-related obligations to customers, sellers or other third parties may result in Federal or state governmental enforcement actions, litigation, or negative public statements against us by consumer advocacy groups or others and could cause our customers to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business.
We accept payment by a variety of methods and a substantial majority of our net revenues are derived from credit card sales. This in turn exposes us to increased risks of dependence on third-party payment processing service providers, as well as risks associated with higher transaction fees, compliance matters and fraud.
We accept payments for our products and services on our websites by a variety of methods, including credit card, debit card and other payment services. As we offer new payment options to our customers, we may be subject to additional fees, additional regulations, compliance requirements and fraud. To date, the substantial majority of our net revenues have been derived from credit card sales. As a result, we believe our business is vulnerable to any disruption in our customer payment processing capabilities

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and third-party processor disruptions. In most geographic regions, we rely on three or four third-party companies to provide payment processing services, including the processing of credit cards, debit cards and other payment services. If any of these companies became unwilling or unable to provide these services to us, then we would need to find and engage replacement providers. We may not be able to do so on terms that are acceptable to us or at all, or to process the payments ourselves, which could be costly and time consuming. Additionally, as we typically experience increased activity from November through December each year due to increased retail activity during the holiday season, any disruption in our ability to process customer payments in the fourth quarter could have a significant and disproportionate negative impact on our business.
For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower our profit margins or require that we charge our customers more for our products. We are also subject to payment card association and similar operating rules and requirements, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. If we fail to comply with these rules and requirements, we may be subject to fines and higher transaction fees and lose our ability to accept credit and debit card payments from our customers or facilitate other types of online payments, and our business and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to manage our relationships with our suppliers, our business and prospects may suffer.
To address customer demand for a wider range of customizable products, we intend to continue to expand our merchandise selection. This in turn increases our reliance on suppliers of such merchandise. Additionally, our business and reputation depend in large part on our ability to process and ship orders quickly, including during unanticipated or seasonal periods of increased demand. As a result, we believe the successful management of our supplier relationships is a key aspect of our business and our ability to compete. We source our blank products from domestic and foreign manufacturers and distributors. Maintaining good relationships with suppliers that compete with each other can be difficult. For example, suppliers of similar products may compete for more prominent placement on our websites. Our current suppliers may not continue to sell merchandise to us on terms acceptable to us, and we may be unable to establish new or extend current supplier relationships to ensure a steady supply of blank inventory in a timely and cost-efficient manner. If we are unable to develop and maintain good relationships with suppliers, it may inhibit our ability to offer products demanded by our customers or to offer them in sufficient quantities and at prices acceptable to them. In addition, if our suppliers cease to provide us with favorable pricing or payment terms or return policies, our working capital requirements may increase and our operations may be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we subcontract certain activities to third- party vendors. Any deterioration in our supplier or subcontractor relationships, or a failure to resolve disputes with, or complaints from, our suppliers in a timely manner, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
We may suffer losses if we are unable to efficiently manage our inventory risks.
We must anticipate the popularity of products and purchase blank inventory and secure sufficient supplies before customizing and selling them to our customers. Across our businesses, we must manage differing demand and inventory controls to accurately forecast and protect against risks. If we fail to adequately predict demand and experience an unexpected peak in production, our production times will suffer, which may result in damage to our reputation and business. For example, if we do not have an adequate supply of ink due to periods of unexpected peak demand, our ability to print and deliver products may be delayed. Conversely, any over purchase of ink or other supplies exposes us to risks of obsolete or excess inventory. Some of our contracts with suppliers contain restrictions on our ability to return products, such as caps on the amount of products that can be returned, and we may lose preferential pricing terms for such products if we exceed these caps, which could materially affect our profit margins. If we are unable to correctly predict demand for the products that we are committed to purchase, we will be responsible for covering the cost of the products that we are unable to sell, and our financial condition and results of operations would likely suffer.
We largely depend on overseas suppliers for blank inventory and if we do not appropriately manage the risks related to product safety and quality, we may face regulatory actions or recalls and our operating results will be harmed.
Manufacturers in China are the source of much of the blank inventory we utilize in the creation of customized products for sale on our websites, whether sourced from vendors directly by our supply managers or purchased through our business or fulfillment partners. Regulatory oversight of manufacturing in China is not subject to the same standards of product safety or supply chain scrutiny as may be expected in the United States. One or more of our vendors might not adhere to U.S. quality or legal standards, and we might not identify the deficiency before merchandise ships to our customers. As an example, the Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010 in California requires us to audit our vendors with respect to risks of human trafficking and slavery and mitigate these risks in our operations. Any failure to disclose issues or other non-compliance could subject us to action by the California Attorney General or other regulatory authorities. Our distribution partners also maintain global sourcing policies with which we must comply in order to maintain business relationships. Such policies require us to monitor our supply chain and there is no

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guarantee we will be able to do so consistently and successfully over time and secure a price that is not otherwise damaging to our business. In addition, our vendors may have difficulty adjusting to our changing demands and growing business. Our vendors’ failure to manufacture or import quality merchandise in a timely and effective manner could damage our reputation and brand, and could lead to an increase in customer litigation against us and an increase in our routine litigation costs. We rely on indemnities from suppliers and manufacturers with respect to the goods we customize and that protection may or may not be enough to shield us from liability for quality deficiencies. Further, any merchandise that we receive, even if it meets our quality standards, could become subject to a later recall, which could damage our reputation, our brand and our customers’ brands and harm our business. While we have never been subject to a product recall, there can be no guarantee that we will not face one in the future and the costs associated with such a recall may be substantial. Recently enacted legislation has given the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission increased regulatory and enforcement power, particularly with regard to children’s safety, among other areas. As a result, companies such as ours may be subject to more product recalls and incur higher recall-related expenses. Any recalls or other safety issues could harm our business and operating results.
Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights may undermine our competitive position, and litigation to protect our intellectual property rights or defend against third-party allegations of infringement may be costly and time-consuming.
Protection of our proprietary technology is critical to our business. Failure to protect and monitor the use of our existing intellectual property rights could result in the loss of valuable technologies and prevent us from maintaining a leading market position. We rely primarily on patents, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights and other contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property. As of December 31, 2015, we had seven issued patents and one patent pending in the United States, which relate to our e-commerce services, and our proprietary printing and decorating services. We may have, on occasion, disclosed inventions prior to making the relevant filings, which may make our patent applications and any resulting issued patents vulnerable to validity challenges. Our pending patent applications may not result in issued patents, or if patents are issued to us, such patents may not provide meaningful protection against competitors or against competitive technologies.
We also rely upon certain unpatented proprietary manufacturing expertise and modeling methods and designs, licensed third-party technologies, continuing technological innovation and other trade secrets to develop and maintain our competitive position. While we enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and third parties to protect our intellectual property, certain confidentiality and invention assignment agreements may be limited in duration or deemed by a court to be unenforceable. Moreover, these confidentiality and invention assignment agreements could be breached, potentially in ways that we may not immediately detect, and thus may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or proprietary manufacturing expertise. Adequate remedies may not be available in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of our trade secrets and manufacturing expertise. In addition, others may obtain knowledge of our trade secrets through independent development or legal means. The failure of our patents or confidentiality agreements to protect our processes, equipment, technology, trade secrets and proprietary manufacturing expertise, methods of system design, other methods and materials could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, effective patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries. In some countries where we operate, we have not applied for patent, trademark or copyright protection.
Third parties may infringe or misappropriate our proprietary technologies or other intellectual property rights, which could harm our business, financial condition or operating results. Policing unauthorized use of proprietary technology can be difficult and expensive and potentially subjects our intellectual property rights to validity and enforceability challenges. Also, litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets or determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. We cannot assure you that the outcome of such potential litigation will be in our favor. Such litigation may be costly and time-consuming and may divert management attention and other resources away from our business. An adverse determination in any such litigation will impair our intellectual property rights and may harm our business, prospects and reputation.
We may face infringement or misappropriation claims by third parties, which, if determined adversely to us, could cause us to pay significant damage awards or prohibit us from conducting our business.
Our success depends largely on our ability to use and develop our technology and know-how without infringing or misappropriating the intellectual property rights of third parties. The validity and scope of claims relating to business process patents involve complex scientific, legal and factual questions and analysis and, therefore, may be highly uncertain. We have been and may continue to be subject to litigation involving claims of patent infringement or violation of intellectual property rights of third parties, including allegations of patent infringement asserted by patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners who have no relevant product revenues and against whom our own patents may therefore provide little or no deterrence. E-commerce companies and divisions have been particularly the target of speculative patent infringement claims in recent years. The defense and prosecution of intellectual property suits, patent opposition proceedings and related legal and administrative proceedings can be both costly and time-consuming and may significantly divert the efforts and resources of our technical and management personnel. An adverse

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determination in any such litigation or proceedings to which we may become a party could subject us to significant liability to third parties, require us to seek licenses from third parties, which may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all, pay ongoing royalties, or subject us to injunctions prohibiting the use of our technologies. Protracted litigation could also result in our customers or potential partner customers of our products or services deferring, limiting or ceasing their purchase or use of our website services until resolution of such litigation.
We are involved in legal proceedings that may result in adverse outcomes.
In addition to the potential infringement claims described above, we may be involved in claims, suits, government investigations, and regulatory proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business, including actions with respect to privacy, data protection, law enforcement, taxes, labor and employment claims as well as stockholder derivative actions, class actions lawsuits and other matters.
Regardless of the outcome, such legal proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of the legal defense costs, diversion of our Board of Directors, management and other personnel’s time and resources, and other factors and expenses. In addition, it is possible that resolution of one or more such proceedings could result in liability, penalties or sanctions, as well as judgments, penalties, consent decrees or orders preventing us from offering certain features in our product offerings or services, requiring changes in our business practices or revenue models, or damaging our reputation with customers, business partners or investors, any of which in turn could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
We are subject to, and will soon be subject to additional regulatory compliance requirements, including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and our management has limited experience managing a public company.
We have limited experience as a public company and will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses, particularly after we cease to be an “emerging growth company” that we did not incur as a private company. The individuals who constitute our management team have limited experience managing a publicly traded company, and limited experience complying with the increasingly complex and changing laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to compliance initiatives and we may not successfully or efficiently manage our transition into a public company. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and the Nasdaq Stock Market, or Nasdaq, impose a number of requirements on public companies, including requiring changes in corporate governance practices. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting annually and disclosure controls and procedures quarterly. While the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, also known as the JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012, provided us with additional time to achieve full compliance, the regulations surrounding Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has required us to, and will continue to, incur substantial accounting expense and expend significant management time on compliance-related issues. Moreover, these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs and will make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly than private company compliance. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors, our board committees or as executive officers and will make securing directors’ and officers’ liability insurance more expensive.
We have previously disclosed a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting which management believes has been fully remediated. Should we have inadequately remediated this material weakness or should we otherwise fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and processes, our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations accurately and on a timely basis could be adversely affected.
In connection with the preparation of our consolidated financial statements for the year 2014, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, as defined in the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the U.S.A. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The identified material weakness related to improper reconciliation procedures that did not identify the incorrect processing of certain accounts payable, prepaid inventory and receiving procedures mostly related to additional charges on international orders, such as freight and import duty, which led to the balances in certain liability accounts being understated, certain asset accounts being overstated, and costs of goods sold expenses being understated in prior years. Our independent registered public accounting firm did not and was not required to perform an evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting as of and for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2014 in accordance with the provisions of the JOBS Act.
We believe that as of December 31, 2014 the balances are properly stated. After detecting the material weakness, additional close procedures were performed, including a full review of the vendors associated with the misstatement, (which are an isolated subset

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of the total population relating to international vendors) and an updated reconciliation process. Management has specifically tested the revised processes and key controls over accounts payable for all four quarters of 2015 and concludes those processes are effectively operating as of December 31, 2015, therefore, management has concluded the previously reported material weakness has been remediated. However, we cannot be certain that other material weaknesses and control deficiencies will not be discovered in the future. If other material weaknesses or control deficiencies occur in the future, we may be unable to report our financial results accurately or on a timely basis, which could cause our reported financial results to be materially misstated and result in the loss of investor confidence or delisting and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline. As a result of such failures, we could also become subject to investigations by the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, and become subject to litigation from investors and stockholders, which could harm our reputation, financial condition or divert financial and management resources from our core business.
If we are unable to successfully improve internal controls, or detect weaknesses or errors in our internal controls, our ability to report our financial results on a timely and accurate basis may be adversely affected as well as our ability to attract investors in our stock.
We have implemented and continue to adopt measures to improve our internal controls. If the procedures we have adopted and implemented are insufficient, we may fail to meet our future reporting obligations, our financial statements may contain material misstatements and our operating results may be harmed. As discussed above, we had identified a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting for the years ended December 31, 2013 and December 31, 2014, which was remediated as of December 31, 2015. In addition, we have in the past experienced deficiencies in internal controls, and while the dollar amounts involved were not material and we believe we have remediated these deficiencies, there can be no assurance that similar or other significant deficiencies or material weaknesses in our financial reporting will not occur in the future. Any failure to maintain or implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties we encounter in their implementation, could result in significant deficiencies or material weaknesses, cause us to fail to meet our future reporting obligations or cause our financial statements to contain material misstatements. Internal control deficiencies could also result in a revision or restatement of our financial statements in the future or cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, leading to a decline in our stock price.
Since we are an “emerging growth company,” as defined by the JOBS Act and for as long as we maintain such status, we are not required at this time to include an attestation report of our registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Such report will be required with the filing of our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K. If we fail to maintain effective and appropriate internal controls over financial reporting processes or modify them as necessary to maintain such controls, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports. If we fail to properly manage internal operational controls across our businesses and our websites, confidence in our business and results of operations may suffer and the price of our common stock may decline. If the reliability of our internal control over financial reporting is in question, the price of our common stock may decline or be otherwise adversely affected. Such doubts about the efficacy of internal controls could also impair our ability to attract new investors and may adversely affect our ability to continue our growth and meet our forecasts.
If our management of internal controls is not effective, there may be errors in our financial information that could require a restatement or delay our SEC filings, and investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information or significantly increased costs in rectifying such issues, which could lead to a decline in our stock price.
We have incurred and may continue to incur high corporate governance costs to ensure our controls practices meet the required standards. Any failure to maintain or implement required new or improved controls, or any difficulties we encounter in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations, or result in material misstatements in our financial information or cause us to incur material increase in the costs associated with our corporate governance. Any such delays or restatements could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and lead to a decline in our stock price. Any dramatic increased costs could impact our results in operations and stock price could be materially adversely impacted.

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Risks related to our industry
Uncertainties regarding the growth and sustained profitability of business-to-consumer e-commerce could adversely affect our revenues and business prospects and the trading price of our common stock.
The long-term viability and prospects of e-commerce remain relatively uncertain. Our future operating results will depend on numerous industry-related factors, including:

the trust and confidence level of consumers in online shopping, as well as changes in consumer demographics and consumers’ tastes and preferences;
concerns about buying customized and personalized products without face-to-face interaction with sales personnel;
our ability to provide high-quality customization capabilities and printing output, including design tools, resolution quality, color and sizing accuracy of images;
the selection, price and popularity of products that we and our competitors offer on websites;
whether alternative retail channels or business models that better address the needs of consumers emerge;
the impact of new technology platforms for Internet access, such as mobile, and methods of marketing, such as social media;
the development of fulfillment, payment and other ancillary services associated with online purchases; and
general economic conditions, particularly economic conditions affecting discretionary consumer spending.
A decline in the popularity of shopping on the Internet in general or a shift in the devices used that are not optimal for viewing our sites, a decline in interest in customized goods as a retail trend or any failure by us to adapt our websites and improve the online shopping experience of our customers in response to consumer requirements and tastes, will harm our revenues and business prospects.
Our international sales and operations subject us to additional risks that may materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.
We maintain websites localized to the markets in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada. Additionally, we utilize contract manufacturing operations through partners in the Czech Republic and Australia. In connection with our international presence we are subject to a variety of risks including:

the need to develop new production, supplier and customer relationships;
difficulties in enforcing contracts, collecting accounts receivables and longer payment cycles;
regulatory, political or contractual limitations on our ability to operate and sell in certain foreign markets, including trade barriers such as export requirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and expenses as well as tax nexus issues for royalties paid to non-U.S. content providers;
varying and more extensive data privacy and security laws and regulations in other countries;
challenges of international delivery and customs requirements;
varying product safety requirements and content restrictions in other countries;
difficulties of language translations, increased travel, infrastructure and legal compliance and enforcement costs associated with international operations;
currency translation and transaction risk, which may negatively affect our revenues, cost of net revenues and gross margins, and could result in exchange losses;
difficulty with managing widespread international operations and fulfillment partnerships;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
the need to defend against intellectual property infringement claims against us in unfamiliar foreign legal regimes and to comply with unfamiliar foreign regulatory schemes and laws;
lower per capita Internet usage and lack of appropriate infrastructure to support widespread Internet usage as well as broadband connections on which our content-rich services depend;
heightened exposure to political instability, war and terrorism; and

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changes in the general economic and political conditions.
We have ceased providing translated sites in Germany, Spain, France, Ireland and New Zealand as part of our efforts to better focus on growing our business in our core international regions including the UK, Canada and Australia. Our success globally will depend on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these and other risks associated with our international presence. Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our international reputation and reduce our international sales, adversely affecting our business, operating results and financial condition.
If use of the Internet, particularly with respect to e-commerce, decreases or does not increase, our business and results of operations will be harmed.
Our future revenues are substantially dependent upon the continued growth in the use of the Internet as an effective medium of business and communication by our target customers. Internet use may not continue to develop at historical rates and consumers may not continue to use the Internet and other online services as a medium for commerce for several reasons including the following:

actual or perceived lack of security of information or privacy protection;
attacks on or attempts to hijack our domain or website traffic or similar damage to our domains or servers;
possible disruptions, computer viruses, spyware, phishing, attacks or other damage to the Internet servers, service providers, network carriers and Internet companies or to users’ computers; and
excessive governmental regulation and new taxation measures.
Our success will depend, in large part, upon third parties maintaining the Internet infrastructure to provide a reliable network backbone with the speed, data capacity, security and hardware necessary for reliable Internet access and services. Our business, which relies on contextually rich websites that require the transmission of substantial secure data, is also significantly dependent upon the availability and adoption of broadband Internet access and other high speed Internet connectivity technologies.
If we do not properly account for our unredeemed gift certificates, gift cards, merchandise credits and flash deal promotions through group-buying websites, our operating results will be harmed.
We account for unredeemed gift cards, gift certificates, and flash deal promotions through group-buying websites and merchandise credits based on historical redemption data. In the event that our historical redemption patterns change in the future, our estimates for redemption would change, which would affect our financial position or operating results. Further, in the event that a state or states were to require that the unredeemed amounts be escheated to such state or states, our business and operating results would be harmed. As mentioned above, we also participate in flash deal promotions through group-buying websites such as Amazon Local. Due to the emerging development of this business model, the terms and conditions of these programs continue to evolve and the taxation, legal and other potential regulatory implications of these sales activities have yet to be fully settled. Based on the terms of the agreements that we have entered into to date, and based on management’s judgment in the evaluation of the criteria in the authoritative accounting guidance, we have concluded that we are the primary obligor in these transactions and have recorded revenues on a gross basis and the fees retained by the group-buying website as sales and marketing expense. We will continue to evaluate changes in the terms and conditions of these programs, or changes in accounting guidance in determining our accounting for these programs. There can be no guarantee that the legal, accounting and customer service approaches we have taken to these programs will be deemed appropriate in the future. Changes in the terms and conditions of these programs or our evaluation of our performance obligations and associated tax, escheatment and other obligations associated with these programs could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial position or otherwise harm our business.
Taxation risks could subject us to liability for past sales and cause our future sales to decrease.
United States Supreme Court precedents currently restrict the imposition of obligations to collect state and local sales and use taxes with respect to sales made over the Internet. However, in recent years, a number of states have attempted or are considering adoption of initiatives that limit or supersede the Supreme Court’s position regarding sales and use taxes on Internet sales or with respect to affiliate marketing programs we employ to generate sales on our websites. If these initiatives are successful, we could be required to collect sales taxes in additional states or change our business practices and we may be exposed to retroactive liability on sales. In recent years, numerous bills have been introduced in the U.S. Congress, including the Marketplace Equity Act and the Marketplace Fairness Act, reintroduced in 2013, which covered similar subject matters. That bill passed the U.S. Senate in May 2013, then stalled in the House and committee and no further action was taken by the 113th Congress. In March of 2015, the Marketplace Fairness Act of 2015 (a slightly modified version of the 2013 Act) was again introduced in the Senate. That Bill was

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referred to the Committee on Finance and no further Action has been taken by the 114th Congress. On June 15, 2015 an analogous bill - The Remote Transactions Parity Act of 2015 - was introduced in the House of Representatives. In July 2015, the House Bill was referred to the House Subcommittee on Regulatory Reform, Commercial and Antitrust Law and no further action has yet been taken. We expect similar bills to continue to be introduced in the future covering similar subject matters. The imposition of a Federal tax scheme or the imposition by individual state and local governments of taxes upon Internet commerce or affiliate programs could create administrative burdens for us in the future that may pose operational challenges. We currently collect sales tax in states in which we believe we have established sales tax nexus based on our operations and physical presence and in compliance with existing law. We have elected to discontinue affiliate marketing programs residing in states that have enacted affiliate sales tax nexus statutes. Under some of our agreements, another company is the seller of record, but we are nevertheless obligated to collect sales tax on transactions. We may enter into additional agreements requiring similar tax collection obligations. We expect the complexity of the application of various taxation schemes to continue to pose challenges to our business on a go forward basis.
We also make payments to our users where they upload content and license to us for the creation of online products and/or storefronts. We believe it is our content owners’ obligation to pay taxes on their percentage of proceeds from such sales from sales. In the U.S., we issue appropriate tax forms disclaiming the withholding on taxes on such sales. U.S. law remains unsettled on taxation of sales made in the U.S. for which we may owe payments to licensors who reside outside the U.S., and we are continuing to evaluate potential withholding obligations in connection with those sales. There is no guarantee that such procedures will be appropriate to disclaim taxable nexus in every state and foreign country in the future and we continually review such positions on a regular basis for recent developments.
We comply with tax liability obligations, including value added tax and provincial sales tax, in foreign jurisdictions as applicable but additional foreign countries may seek to impose sales or other tax collection obligations on us and as our international sales grow and we expand localized language sites our exposure to liability likewise grows.
A successful assertion of taxable nexus with respect to any of our sales, affiliate marketing or user royalty payment activity by one or more states or foreign countries that we should collect sales or other taxes on the sale of merchandise could result in substantial tax liabilities for past sales, decrease our ability to compete with traditional retailers or competitors, negatively impact our financial position or otherwise harm our business.
Risks related to ownership of our common stock
Our stock price has been volatile, may continue to be volatile and may decline regardless of financial performance.
The market price for our common stock has fluctuated and may continue to fluctuate in response to a number of factors, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations, including seasonal variations, in our financial condition and operating results;
changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other e-commerce companies or companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
our announcement of actual results for a fiscal period that are higher or lower than projected results, our announcement of revenues or earnings guidance that is higher or lower than expected, our withdrawal of previously issued guidance or our decision not to provide guidance;
loss of a significant amount of existing business;
issuance of new or updated research reports by securities analysts, including the publication of unfavorable reports or changes in recommendation or downgrading of ratings on our common stock;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our competitors’ operating results or changes in their growth rates;
lack of coverage of us by industry or securities analysts;
regulatory developments in our target markets affecting us, our customers or our competitors;
fluctuations in the supply and prices of materials used in our products, such as cotton;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent or low trading volume levels of our shares, to erratic or unpredictable investor activity, or to purchases or sales or large amounts of our stock, including by institutional or other investors;
commencement of, our involvement in, litigation;
terrorist attacks or natural disasters or other such events impacting countries where we or our customers have operations; and
general economic and market conditions.

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For example, from March 29, 2012 through December 31, 2015, our stock price has fluctuated from a high of $22.69 on March 29, 2012 to a low of $1.95 on December 15 and 16, 2014. As of December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2015, our stock price closed at $2.35 and $3.84, respectively.
We have a relatively small public float, which may further contribute to volatility in our stock price.
We have a relatively small public float due to the ownership percentage of our executive officers and directors and greater than 10% stockholders. In addition, in May 2015, the Company announced a share repurchase program approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, authorizing, but not obligating, the repurchase of up to an aggregate amount of 3,500,000 shares of its common stock from time to time through April 30, 2016. Through December 31, 2015, 931,664 shares had been repurchased, and 2,568,336 shares remained available for purchase under this program. As a result, our common stock may be less liquid and have greater stock price volatility than the common stock of companies with broader public ownership. In addition, the trading of a relatively small volume of shares of our common stock may result in significant volatility in our stock price. If and to the extent ownership of our common stock becomes more concentrated, whether due to increased ownership by our directors and executive officers or other significant stockholders, any future repurchase of our common stock, or other factors, our public float would further decrease, which in turn would likely result in increased stock price volatility.
Furthermore, the stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may cause the market price of shares of our common stock to decline. As an e-commerce company, we believe our stock price may be particularly susceptible to volatility as the stock prices of technology and e-commerce companies have often been subject to wide fluctuations. Additionally, because a large amount of our stock is closely held, we may experience low trading volume or large fluctuations in share price and volume due to large sales by institutional investors.
In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We have in the past, and in the future may be, the target of this type of litigation. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm our business.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and we intend to comply with reduced public company reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act and, for as long as we continue to be an “emerging growth company,” we may choose to take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements afforded to such companies, including, but not limited to, exemptions from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes Oxley Act, exemptions from certain of the disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Our independent registered public accounting firm is not required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC, or the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” At such time, our independent registered accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or are operating.
We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we choose to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of any choices to reduce future disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
Anti-takeover provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and in Delaware law generally contain provisions that could discourage a takeover.
In addition to the effect that the concentration of ownership by our officers, directors and significant stockholders may have, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may enable our management to resist a change of control. These provisions may discourage, delay or prevent a change in our ownership or a change in our management. In addition, these provisions could limit the price that investors would be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. Such provisions as set forth in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws include:

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our Board of Directors is authorized, without prior stockholder approval, to create and issue preferred stock, commonly referred to as “blank check” preferred stock, with rights senior to those of common stock;
advance notice is required of stockholders to nominate candidates to serve on our Board of Directors or to propose matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings;
stockholder action by written consent is prohibited;
special meetings of the stockholders will be permitted to be called only by a majority of our Board of Directors, the chairman of our Board of Directors or our chief executive officer;
newly created directorships resulting from an increase in the authorized number of directors or vacancies on our Board of Directors will be filled only by majority vote of the remaining directors, even though less than a quorum is then in office, or by a sole remaining director;
the requirement that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for certain derivative and other actions;
our Board of Directors is expressly authorized to modify, alter or repeal our amended and restated bylaws; and
stockholders will be permitted to amend our amended and restated bylaws only upon receiving at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of all outstanding shares then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.
We are also subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which may prohibit certain business combinations with stockholders owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our Board of Directors or initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current Board of Directors, including delaying or impeding a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving us. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our Board of Directors could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Our stock price has been volatile historically, and may continue to be volatile. Further, sales of our common stock by stockholders with significant holdings may cause the price of our common stock to decrease.
The trading price of our common stock has been and may continue to be subject to wide fluctuations. Our stock price may fluctuate in response to a number of events and factors, such as quarterly variations in operating results, announcements by us or our competitors, including announcements relating to strategic decisions or key personnel, service disruptions, changes in financial estimates and recommendations by security analysts, the operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors may deem comparable to us, volatility in the financial markets and news reports relating to trends in our markets or general economic conditions. The impact of these events and factors on our stock price is amplified by the relatively low number of our shares on the market.
In addition, several of our stockholders own significant portions of our common stock. If these stockholders were to sell all or a large portion of their holdings of our common stock, the market price of our common stock could be negatively impacted. The effect of such sales, or of significant portions of our stock being offered or made available for sale, could result in strong downward pressure on our stock price. Investors should be aware that they could experience significant short-term volatility in our stock if such stockholders decide to sell all or a portion of their holdings of our common stock at once or within a short period of time.
Repurchases of our common stock or other investments we may make may not prove to be the best use of our cash resources.
We have and plan to continue to opportunistically repurchase shares of our common stock. Since the inception of our stock repurchase program in 2015, we have repurchased an aggregate of 931,664 shares for a total of $4.2 million. We are authorized to repurchase up to 3.5 million shares of common stock under the repurchase program, which terminates in May 2016.
These repurchases and any repurchases we may make in the future may not prove to be at optimal prices and our use of cash for the stock repurchase program may not prove to be the best use of our cash resources and may adversely impact our future liquidity.
In addition, we have used in the past, and may use in the future, our cash and cash equivalents to make investments in certain businesses and ventures as our management thinks appropriate. These investments may decline in value after they are made or we may entirely lose the cash associated with the investment.


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ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

ITEM 2. Properties
Facilities
As of March 30, 2016, our properties consisted of the following locations:

Principal use
Location
 
Square
footage
 
Lease
expiration
Corporate offices (1)(4)
Hayward, California
 
10,995

 
February 1, 2019
Corporate offices and production facilities (2)(4)
Louisville, Kentucky
 
195,745

 
July 31, 2018
Corporate offices (3)
Louisville, Kentucky
 
24,968

 
N/A
We believe that our current facilities are sufficient to meet our needs for the foreseeable future and should additional space be needed, such space can be leased on commercially reasonable terms to accommodate any future growth.

(1)
Lease agreement signed in July 2015 with a commencement date of January 1, 2016.
(2)
See Note 12, Restructuring.
(3)
Office building located on 1.61 acres of land purchased December 2015.
(4)
Leased real property.

ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings
We may be subject to lawsuits, claims and proceedings incident to the ordinary course of business, particularly with respect to content that appears on our website. Any claims against us, whether material, meritorious or not, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, require significant amounts of legal resources, management time and result in the diversion of significant operational resources. The results of these lawsuits, claims and proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty. We are not currently a party to any other litigation matters that, individually or in the aggregate, are expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


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PART II

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market for our common equity
After the pricing of our initial public offering on March 29, 2012, our common stock has traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “PRSS.” Prior to that date, there was no public market for our common stock. The following table sets forth the high and low closing sale prices of our common stock as reported by NASDAQ for the periods indicated:

Fiscal Year 2014
High
 
Low
First Quarter
$
6.80

 
$
5.26

Second Quarter
$
6.04

 
$
5.09

Third Quarter
$
5.35

 
$
3.13

Fourth Quarter
$
3.29

 
$
1.96


Fiscal Year 2015
High
 
Low
First Quarter
$
3.89

 
$
2.10

Second Quarter
$
5.28

 
$
3.80

Third Quarter
$
4.81

 
$
4.08

Fourth Quarter
$
4.79

 
$
3.65

On March 18, 2016, the last sale price for our common stock on NASDAQ was $3.55 per share.
Stockholders
As of March 18, 2016, according to the records of our transfer agent, there were approximately 95 registered holders of our Common Stock excluding stockholders whose shares were held in nominee or street name by brokers.
Dividends
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on shares of our capital stock. Our Board of Directors will determine whether to declare any future dividends, if any, in its discretion subject to applicable laws. Any such determination will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, bank covenants, general business conditions and any other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant
Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans
Information regarding the securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans can be found under Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Stock performance graph
We have presented below the cumulative total return to our stockholders during the period from March 29, 2012 (the date our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market) through December 31, 2015 in comparison to the NASDAQ Composite Index and the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index. All values assume a $100 initial investment and assume reinvestment of dividends.

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COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among CafePress, Inc., the NASDAQ Composite Index
And the NASDAQ-100 Technology Sector Index


This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of CafePress, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
The comparisons in the graph above are required by the Securities and Exchange Commission and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.
Unregistered sales of equity securities
None.

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Issuer purchases of equity securities

The following table provides information regarding purchases of the Company’s common stock by the Company during the quarter ended December 31, 2015:

Period
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased
 
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
 
Approximate
Dollar Value of
Shares That
May Yet Be
Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs (a)
(in thousands)
October 1, 2015 - October 31, 2015
96,358

 
$
4.33

 
96,358

 
$
12,400

November 1, 2015 - November 30, 2015
124,425

 
$
4.24

 
124,425

 
$
11,872

December 1, 2015 - December 31, 2015
73,311

 
$
3.99

 
73,311

 
$
11,579

Total
294,094

 
$
4.21

 
294,094

 
 

(a) On May 4, 2015, the Company announced a share repurchase program approved by the Board of Directors of the Company, authorizing, but not obligating, the repurchase of up to an aggregate amount of 3,500,000 shares of its common stock from time to time through April 30, 2016. Any stock repurchases may be made through open market and privately negotiated transactions, or as otherwise may be determined by management, at times and in such amounts as management deems appropriate. The Company’s share repurchase program does not obligate it to acquire any specific number of shares. Under the program, shares may be repurchased in privately negotiated and/or open market transactions, including under plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act. Through December 31, 2015, 931,664 shares had been repurchased, and 2,568,336 shares remained available for purchase under this program.



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ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read together with the consolidated financial statements and the notes to the consolidated financial statements and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” which are included elsewhere in this report. Prior year financial statements have been recast to reflect the sale of our Invitation box.com business assets as of December 31, 2014, the sale of our Art and Groups business assets in the first fiscal quarter of 2015, and the sale of our EZ Prints business assets in the third fiscal quarter of 2015, within discontinued operations. See Note 5, Discontinued Operations, in the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Consolidated statements of operations data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues
$
104,508

 
$
132,054

 
$
146,195

 
$
148,350

 
$
141,636

Cost of net revenues(1)
63,069

 
85,016

 
92,462

 
91,077

 
80,948

Gross profit
41,439

 
47,038

 
53,733

 
57,273

 
60,688

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing(1)
20,485

 
31,488

 
36,003

 
33,141

 
29,574

Technology and development(1)
12,490

 
13,448

 
13,461

 
11,937

 
11,628

General and administrative(1)
12,560

 
18,590

 
12,668

 
13,015

 
11,645

Acquisition-related costs

 
50

 
112

 
719

 

Impairment charges
788

 

 

 

 

Restructuring costs
1,311

 
42

 

 

 

Total operating expenses
47,634

 
63,618

 
62,244

 
58,812

 
52,847

(Loss) income from operations
(6,195
)
 
(16,580
)
 
(8,511
)
 
(1,539
)
 
7,841

Interest income
64

 
18

 
40

 
76

 
56

Interest expense
(62
)
 
(77
)
 
(113
)
 
(158
)
 
(185
)
Other (expense) income, net
58

 
6

 
(7
)
 

 

(Loss) income before income taxes
(6,135
)
 
(16,633
)
 
(8,591
)
 
(1,621
)
 
7,712

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
128

 
(1,700
)
 
6,973

 
(471
)
 
2,475

Net (loss) income from continuing operations
(6,263
)
 
(14,933
)
 
(15,564
)
 
(1,150
)
 
5,237

Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
8,418

 
(974
)
 
1,651

 
762

 
(1,751
)
Net income (loss)
$
2,155

 
$
(15,907
)
 
$
(13,913
)
 
$
(388
)
 
$
3,486

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share of common stock(2):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.36
)
 
$
(0.86
)
 
$
(0.91
)
 
$
(0.08
)
 
$
0.36

Discontinued operations
$
0.49

 
$
(0.06
)
 
$
0.10

 
$
0.05

 
$
(0.20
)
Diluted:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Continuing operations
$
(0.36
)
 
$
(0.86
)
 
$
(0.91
)
 
$
(0.08
)
 
$
0.34

Discontinued operations
$
0.49

 
$
(0.06
)
 
$
0.10

 
$
0.05

 
$
(0.20
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares used in computing net income (loss) per share of common stock(2):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
17,239

 
17,308

 
17,143

 
15,021

 
8,798

Diluted
17,296

 
17,308

 
17,318

 
15,416

 
9,403




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Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
(in thousands)
Consolidated balance sheet data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
32,663

 
$
26,971

 
$
32,205

 
$
28,765

 
$
29,700

Short-term investments
17,610

 

 
3,475

 
9,403

 
8,437

Working capital
40,892

 
39,199

 
10,093

 
13,265

 
17,707

Total assets
91,383

 
122,485

 
141,201

 
157,811

 
89,114

Total indebtedness
912

 
1,404

 
2,529

 
2,701

 
3,174

Convertible preferred stock

 

 

 

 
22,811

Total stockholders’ equity
70,323

 
70,185

 
82,670

 
92,737

 
25,354



(1)
Amounts include stock-based compensation expense as follows:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
(in thousands)
Cost of net revenues
$
163

 
$
162

 
$
177

 
$
204

 
$
136

Sales and marketing
300

 
359

 
304

 
515

 
504

Technology and development
180

 
280

 
222

 
226

 
258

General and administrative
1,063

 
2,000

 
2,172

 
2,317

 
1,319

Total stock-based compensation expense
$
1,706

 
$
2,801

 
$
2,875

 
$
3,262

 
$
2,217



 
(2)
Please see Notes 2 and 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements for an explanation of the calculations of our basic and diluted net income per share of common stock.

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
(in thousands, except key operating metrics)
(unaudited)
Other financial and non-GAAP financial data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA(3):
$
3,861

 
$
(6,393
)
 
$
1,660

 
$
7,960

 
$
15,627

% of revenue
3.7
%
 
(4.8
)%
 
1.1
%
 
5.4
%
 
11.0
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contribution margin(4)
$
28,260

 
$
22,751

 
$
26,029

 
$
32,171

 
$
39,363

% of revenue
27
%
 
17
 %
 
18
%
 
22
%
 
28
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures
$
5,249

 
$
5,705

 
$
10,274

 
$
11,012

 
$
5,373

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Key operating metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total number of orders
2,883,704

 
3,436,401

 
3,614,963

 
3,577,277

 
3,145,178

Average order size(5)
$
36

 
$
39

 
$
40

 
$
42

 
$
45




 

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Index to Financial Statements


(3)
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure that our management uses to assess our operating performance and it is a factor in the evaluation of the performance of our management in determining compensation. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) less interest and other income (expense), provision for income taxes, depreciation and amortization, amortization of intangible assets, acquisition-related costs, stock-based compensation, restructuring costs, and impairment charges.
We use Adjusted EBITDA as a key performance measure because we believe it facilitates operating performance comparisons from period to period by excluding potential differences caused by variations in capital structures (affecting net interest expense), tax positions (such as the impact on periods of changes in effective tax rates or fluctuations in permanent differences or discrete quarterly items), the impact of depreciation and amortization, amortization of intangible assets, acquisition-related costs, stock-based compensation, restructuring costs, and impairment charges. Because Adjusted EBITDA facilitates internal comparisons of our historical operating performance on a more consistent basis, we also use Adjusted EBITDA for business planning purposes and to incentivize and compensate our management personnel.
Our use of Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider this measure in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP as the excluded items may have significant effects on our operating results and financial condition. When evaluating our performance, you should consider Adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including various cash flow metrics, net income and our other GAAP results.
The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss), the most comparable GAAP measure, for each of the periods indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
$
(6,263
)
 
$
(14,933
)
 
$
(15,564
)
 
$
(1,150
)
 
$
5,237

Non-GAAP adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest and other (income) expense
(60
)
 
53

 
80

 
82

 
129

Provision (benefit) for income taxes
128

 
(1,700
)
 
6,973

 
(471
)
 
2,475

Depreciation and amortization
6,251

 
7,294

 
7,184

 
5,518

 
5,569

Stock-based compensation
1,706

 
2,801

 
2,875

 
3,262

 
2,217

Acquisition-related costs

 
50

 
112

 
719

 

Impairment charges
788

 

 

 

 

Restructuring costs
1,311

 
42

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA
$
3,861

 
$
(6,393
)
 
$
1,660

 
$
7,960

 
$
15,627


 
 



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(4)
Contribution margin (a non-GAAP financial measure which we reconcile to “Gross profit” in our consolidated statements of operations) consists of gross profit plus stock-based compensation included in cost of net revenues less variable sales and marketing expenses and reflects an additional way of viewing our results. When viewed together with our GAAP results, we believe contribution margin provides management and users of the financial statements information about our ability to cover our operating costs, such as Technology and Development and General and Administrative expenses. Contribution margin is used in addition to and in conjunction with results presented in accordance with GAAP and should not be relied upon to the exclusion of GAAP financial measures. You should review our financial statements and publicly-filed reports in their entirety and not rely on any single financial measure. One material limitation associated with the use of contribution margin is that it is an incomplete measure of profitability as it does not include all operating expenses or non-operating income and expenses. Management compensates for these limitations when using this measure by looking at other GAAP measures, such as operating income and net income.
The following table presents the calculation of contribution margin from continuing operations for the periods indicated (in thousands):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenues
$
104,508

 
$
132,054

 
$
146,195

 
$
148,350

 
$
141,636

Cost of net revenues
63,069

 
85,016

 
92,462

 
91,077

 
80,948

Gross profit
41,439

 
47,038

 
53,733

 
57,273

 
60,688

Non-GAAP adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Add: Stock-based compensation
163

 
162

 
177

 
204

 
136

Less: Variable sales and marketing costs
(13,342
)
 
(24,449
)
 
(27,881
)
 
(25,306
)
 
(21,461
)
Contribution Margin (from continuing operations)
$
28,260

 
$
22,751

 
$
26,029

 
$
32,171

 
$
39,363



(5)
Average order size is calculated as billings for a given period divided by the total number of associated orders in the same period. Due to timing of meeting revenue recognition criteria, billings may not be recognized as revenues until the following period.



ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Recent Strategic Transactions

EZ Prints business asset sale
On September 1, 2015, we sold our EZ Prints business, which provided a suite of enterprise class deployable software products and services focused on private label e-commerce customization services, pursuant to an asset purchase agreement with EZ Prints Holdings, Inc. (“EZP Holdings”). Vincent Sarrecchia, the chief executive officer of EZP Holdings, was previously serving as the interim chief executive officer of the EZ Prints business pursuant to a consulting agreement. Total consideration for the sale was $0.6 million, of which $0.1 million has been received and $0.5 million is in the form of a non-interest bearing note receivable due on or before December 31, 2018. As part of the closing of the sale, we agreed to pay a current obligation of $1.25 million to one of EZ Prints' current customers.
In connection with the EZ Prints asset purchase agreement, we entered into a transition services agreement with EZP Holdings for a maximum period of one year from the closing date, a license agreement whereby we continue to have the right to use certain software, and cross fulfillment agreements whereby each party agrees to fulfill certain products for the other party.
  

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Groups business asset sale
On March 6, 2015, we completed the sale of our Groups business, which provided personalized apparel and merchandise for groups and organizations through our e-commerce websites (“Groups”), pursuant to an asset purchase agreement with Logo Sportswear Inc. (“Logo Sportswear”). We received proceeds of $9.2 million, net of expenses, of which $1.0 million is in escrow for our indemnification obligations pursuant to an escrow agreement between us, Logo Sportswear and the escrow agent.
In connection with the Groups business asset purchase agreement, we also entered into a transition services agreement and a referral agreement with Logo Sportswear. The transition services agreement with Logo Sportswear provides certain corporate support services that our Groups business has historically received from us, is effective as of the closing date, and certain services can be provided for up to one year after close. Under the referral agreement we will continue to promote Logo Sportswear product types on our websites and redirect potential customers from our websites to a Logo Sportswear website. The initial term of the referral agreement is for a period of two years following the closing date.
 
Art business asset sale
On March 1, 2015, we sold our Art business, which enabled users to transform photographs and images into canvas works of art, pursuant to an asset purchase agreement with Circle Graphics, Inc. (“Circle Graphics”). We received proceeds of $28.5 million, net of expenses, of which $2.4 million is in escrow for its indemnification obligations pursuant to an escrow agreement between Circle Graphics, the escrow agent, and us.
In connection with the Art business asset purchase agreement, we also entered into a transition services agreement and a commercial agreement with Circle Graphics. The transition services agreement with Circle Graphics provides certain corporate support services that our Art business has historically received from us, is effective as of the closing date, and certain services can be provided for up to one year after close. The commercial agreement permits us to continue to sell Art products on our websites. If the fulfillment price provided by Circle Graphics is consistent with market prices, the Art products we sell on our websites must be exclusively fulfilled by Circle Graphics, provided that Circle Graphics meets certain pricing criteria. The initial term of the commercial agreement is for a period of three years following the closing date.
Invitationbox.com business asset sale
On November 5, 2014, we entered into an asset purchase agreement with Phoenix Online LLC, a related party who subsequently separated from CafePress, which sold certain assets and liabilities of our InvitationBox.com business for a nominal amount of cash and quarterly revenue share payments equal to: a) 5% of the gross revenue generated by the InvitationBox.com business for a period of five years; b) 3% of the gross revenue generated by the InvitationBox.com business for a period of five years as consideration for our guaranty of a certain assumed lease for up to $900,000; and c) 2% of the gross revenue generated by the InvitationBox.com business for a period of five years as consideration for certain transition services to be provided by us. If and when such corporate guaranty is released or the underlying lease is terminated, and/or the transition services end then the additional cash revenue payments will cease.
The divested businesses together represented approximately 43% of our total revenue in 2014. We believe these strategic steps will provide us the resources required to focus on improving our core business, further enhance stockholder value and strengthen our balance sheet.
The consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented have been recast to reflect the sale of our Invitation box.com business assets in 2014, the sale of our Art and Groups business assets in the first fiscal quarter of 2015, and the sale of our EZ Prints business assets in the third fiscal quarter of 2015 within discontinued operations. Results of discontinued operations are excluded from Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for all periods presented, unless otherwise noted. See Note 5, Discontinued Operations, in the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

As previously disclosed, our Board of Directors authorized the review of various strategic alternatives to streamline our
operations, unlock shareholder value and strengthen our balance sheet, and retained Raymond James & Associates as our
exclusive independent financial advisor to assist the Board of Directors in this review. The closed divestitures of our Art, Groups and Invitation Box.com businesses are the successful result of our formal strategic evaluations process, which is now complete. Additionally, we divested our EZ Prints business in September 2015 using internal management resources as this divestiture was not part of the scope of our agreement with Raymond James. There are no additional planned divestitures being considered by management.

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Our Business
We are a leading online retailer of personalized products offering a wide variety of expressive gifts and accessories including t-shirts and apparel, mugs and drinkware, and home goods such as custom shower curtains and bed coverings. We conduct most of our business on our primary United States based domain, CafePress.com, and also operate CafePress branded websites for the markets in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. We also sell CafePress branded products though other online retail partners. Our products are customized with expressive designs contributed through a variety of means including crowd-sourced user generated content, stock art licenses and licensed content relationships with large entertainment companies and brands.
Our facility in Louisville, Kentucky has innovative technology and manufacturing processes that enable us to provide high-quality customized products that are individually built to order. Our proprietary processes enable us to produce a broad range of merchandise efficiently, cost effectively and quickly. We also maintain a network of third-party contract manufacturers to produce customized products on our behalf to satisfy demand for certain product lines or for geographic considerations.
The majority of our net revenues are generated from sales of customized products through our e-commerce websites, associated partner websites or through storefronts hosted by CafePress. In addition, we generate revenues from fulfillment services, including print and production services provided to third parties. Customized products include user-designed products as well as products designed by our content owners.
An important revenue driver is customer acquisition, primarily through online marketing efforts including paid and natural search, email, social, affiliate and an array of other channels, as well as the acquisition efforts of our content owners. As a result, our sales and marketing expenses are our largest operating expense.
Our consumers and content owner customers are increasingly accessing e-commerce sites from their mobile devices. This shift to mobile site access presents challenges for us as we cope with shifting traffic patterns, and we have experienced lower conversion rates on traffic from mobile devices. We expect that this shift to mobile site access will continue for the foreseeable future.
Seasonal and cyclical influences impact our business volume. A significant portion of our sales are realized in conjunction with traditional retail holidays, with the largest sales volume in the fourth quarter of each calendar year. Our offering of custom gifts for the holidays combined with consumers’ continued shift to online purchasing drive this trend. As a result of this seasonality, our revenues in each of the first three quarters of the year are generally substantially lower than our revenues in the fourth quarter of the preceding year, and we expect this to continue for the foreseeable future.
We monitor several key operating metrics including (from continuing operations):

 
Three Months Ended
 
Mar. 31,
 
June 30,
 
Sept. 30,
 
Dec. 31,
 
Mar. 31,
 
June 30,
 
Sept. 30,
 
Dec. 31,
 
2014
 
2014
 
2014
 
2014
 
2015
 
2015
 
2015
 
2015
Key operating metrics:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total number of orders
649,016

 
734,775

 
659,566

 
1,393,044

 
616,938

 
608,956

 
566,540

 
1,091,270

Average order size
$
42

 
$
39

 
$
39

 
$
37

 
$
36

 
$
36

 
$
35

 
$
36


Total number of orders
Total number of orders represents the number of individual transactions that are shipped during the period. We monitor the total number of orders as a leading indicator of revenue trends.
Average order size
Average order size is calculated as billings for a given period based on shipment date divided by the total number of associated orders in the same period. Due to timing of meeting revenue recognition criteria, billings may not be recognized as revenues until the following period. We closely monitor the average order size as it relates to changes in order volume, product pricing and product mix.

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Basis of presentation
Net revenues
We generate revenues from online transactions through our e-commerce websites and through our partners' websites.
We recognize revenues associated with an order when all revenue recognition criteria have been met. Revenues are recorded at the gross amount when we are the primary obligor in a transaction, are subject to inventory and credit risk, have latitude in establishing prices and selecting suppliers, or have most of these indicators. For transactions where we act as principal and record revenues on a gross basis, applicable royalty payments to our content owners are recorded in cost of net revenues.
We have entered into arrangements with certain customers to provide fulfillment services under which we are not the primary obligor. These arrangements constitute a smaller component of our business. We consider ourselves as acting as an agent in such transactions. The net fees received on such transactions are recorded as revenues.
Cost of net revenues
Cost of net revenues includes materials, labor, royalties and fixed overhead costs related to our manufacturing facilities, as well as outbound shipping and handling costs. The cost of materials may vary based on revenues as well as the price we are able to negotiate. Shipping fluctuates with volume as well as the method of shipping and fuel surcharges. Labor varies primarily by volume and product mix, and to a lesser extent, based on whether the employee is an hourly or a salary employee. We rely on temporary employees to augment our permanent staff particularly during periods of peak demand. Our royalty expenses are comprised of fees we pay to our content owners for the use of their content on our products. Such fees vary based primarily on sales channel and volume. Certain sales transactions under our create & buy program do not incur royalties. Royalty-based obligations are expensed to cost of net revenues at the contractual rate for the relevant product sales.
Operating expenses
Operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, technology and development, general and administrative expenses and acquisition-related costs, impairment charges, and restructuring costs.
Sales and marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of customer acquisition costs, personnel costs and costs related to customer support, order processing and other marketing activities. Customer acquisition, customer support and order processing expenses are variable and historically have represented the majority of our overall sales and marketing expenses.
Our customer acquisition costs consist of various online media programs, such as paid search engine marketing, email, flash deal promotions through group-buying and social websites, display advertising and affiliate channels. We believe this expense is a key lever that we can use within our business as we adjust volumes to our target return on investment. We expect to continue to invest in sales and marketing expense in the foreseeable future to fund new customer acquisition, increase focus on driving repeat customer purchases, and build our brand.
Technology and development
Technology and development expenses consist of costs incurred for engineering, network operations, and information technology, including personnel expenses, as well as the costs incurred to operate our websites. Technology and development costs are expensed as incurred, except for certain costs related to the development of internal use software and website development, which are capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful lives ranging from two to three years.
General and administrative
General and administrative expenses consist of personnel, professional services and facilities costs related to our executive, finance, human resources and legal functions. Professional services consist primarily of outside legal and accounting services. General and administrative expenses also include headcount and related costs for operations related to our content usage and fraudulent review personnel.

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Acquisition related costs
Acquisition related costs include performance-based compensation payments, any changes in the estimated fair value of performance-based contingent consideration payments which were initially recorded in connection with our acquisitions and third-party fees incurred in connection with our acquisition activity.
We have fulfilled our obligations related to our previous acquisitions and therefore maintained no accrual for performance-based contingent consideration payments as of December 31, 2015 and 2014.
Critical accounting policies and estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our audited condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. On an on-going basis, we evaluate our critical accounting policies and estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results could differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows will be affected. We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.
Revenue recognition
We recognize revenues from product sales, net of estimated returns based on historical experience, when the following revenue recognition criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred or the service has been provided; (3) the selling price or fee revenue earned is fixed or determinable; and (4) collection of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured.
We evaluate whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of product sales and related costs as product revenues or the net amount earned as fulfillment revenues. Revenues are recorded at the gross amount when we are the primary obligor in a transaction, are subject to inventory and credit risk, have latitude in establishing prices and selecting suppliers, or have most of these indicators. When we are not the primary obligor and do not have most of these indicators, revenues will be recorded at the net amount received.
Product sales and shipping revenues are recognized net of promotional discounts, rebates, and return allowances. Revenues from product sales and services rendered are recorded net of sales and consumption taxes. We periodically provide incentive offers to customers to encourage purchases. Such offers include current discount offers, such as percentage discounts off current purchases, and other similar offers. Current discount offers, when used by customers, are treated as a reduction of revenues. We maintain an allowance for estimated future returns and credit card chargebacks based on current period revenues and historical experience.
We account for flash deal promotions through group-buying and social websites as gift certificates. Deferred revenue is recorded at the time of the promotion based on the gross fee payable by the end customer as we are the primary obligor in the transaction. We defer the costs for the direct and incremental sales commission retained by group-buying websites and record the associated expense as a component of sales and marketing expense at the time revenue is recognized. Revenue is recognized on redemption of the offer and delivery of the product to our customers.
We recognize gift certificate breakage from flash promotions, our internally managed voucher promotions, and gift certificate sales as a component of revenues. We monitor historical breakage experience and when sufficient history of redemption exists, we record breakage revenue in proportion to actual gift certificate redemptions. When we conclude that insufficient history of redemption and breakage experience exists, breakage revenue is recognized upon expiration of the flash deal promotion or in the period we consider the obligation for future performance related to such breakage to be remote. Changes in customers’ behavior could impact the amounts that are ultimately redeemed and could affect the breakage recognized as a component of revenues.

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We recognized breakage revenue for flash promotions of $0.2 million, $0.7 million and $0.7 million and the associated direct sales commission of $0.1 million, $0.2 million and $0.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. This increased operating income by $0.1 million, $0.5 million and $0.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Internal use software and website development costs
We incur costs associated with website development and for software developed or obtained for internal use. We expense all costs that relate to the planning associated with website development and for the post-implementation phases of development as product development expense. Costs incurred in the development phase are capitalized and amortized over the product’s estimated useful life of two to three years. Costs associated with repair or maintenance are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill and intangible assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed related to a business combination. Goodwill is presumed to have an indefinite life and is not subject to amortization. We conduct a quantitative test for the impairment of goodwill at least annually, as of July 1 of each year, and also whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the goodwill may not be fully recoverable. The quantitative impairment test is a two-step process. The first step is a comparison of the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If this step indicates impairment, then the loss is measured as the excess of recorded goodwill over its implied fair value, or the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the fair value of all identified assets and liabilities.
We determine our reporting units for goodwill impairment testing by identifying those components at, or one level below, our operating segments that (1) constitute a business, (2) have discrete financial information available, and (3) are regularly reviewed by segment management.
As of the date of our annual goodwill impairment tests in 2015, we determined we had one operating segment and one reporting unit, which is consistent with 2014.
In performing our quantitative impairment tests, we determine the fair value of our reporting unit through a combination of the income and market approaches. Under the income approach, we estimate fair value based on a discounted cash flow model using a discount rate determined by our management to be commensurate with the risk inherent in our current business model. Under the market approach, we estimate the fair value of our overall business based on our current market capitalization, market comparables, or other objective evidence of fair value.
During fiscal year 2014, our market value dropped to below its book value, we had management changes, and we had changes to certain strategic objectives and operations. We considered these items to be triggering events which resulted in additional goodwill impairment tests carried out at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2014. As a result, we updated our quantitative impairment test using a combination of the income and market approaches. Based on our updated impairment analyses performed as of September 30, 2014 and as of December 31, 2014, which considered cash flows from continuing operations, excluding the sale of our InvitationBox.com, Art, and Groups businesses, there was excess fair value over carrying value of 20% and 27%, respectively. Accordingly, we concluded that step two of the goodwill impairment tests was not required at either of these dates and no impairment was recorded.
In the first quarter of 2015, we closed the sale of our Art and Groups businesses and in the second quarter of 2015 classified our EZ Prints business as “Assets Held for Sale” and “Liabilities Held for Sale” in accordance with ASC 205-20-55, Presentation of Financial Statements and ASC 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment. We considered these items to be triggering events, and accordingly, performed goodwill impairment tests as of March 31, 2015 and June 30, 2015. These tests resulted in estimated excess fair value over carrying value of 3% and 6%, respectively. Accordingly, we concluded that step two of the goodwill impairment tests was not required at either of these dates and no impairment was recorded.
In the third quarter of 2015, we performed our annual impairment test as of July 1, 2015 and, subsequently, performed an impairment test as of September 1, 2015 upon the sale of our EZ Prints business, which we considered a triggering event. These tests resulted in estimated excess fair value over carrying value of 6% and 7%, respectively. Accordingly, we concluded that step two of the goodwill impairment tests was not required at either of these dates and no impairment was recorded.
As of December 31, 2015, our market capitalization was approximately $64.4 million compared to our carrying value of $70.3 million, which did not, in management’s view, suggest that the fair value estimates used in its impairment assessment required

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any adjustment as this shortfall is considered to be a temporary event. In addition, since September 1, 2015, the date of our last goodwill impairment analysis, there have been no material changes to our operations or our financial forecasts, and we exceeded our fourth quarter Adjusted EBITDA (see definition on page 34) target. Subsequent to the end of the year and up through March 22, 2016, the market price of the Company's stock fluctuated from a high of $3.99 on February 25th to a low of $3.11 on January 19th. Management believes this short-term volatility represents the temporary nature of our market capitalization as of December 31, 2015, and does not warrant an additional triggering event.
The application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assigning assets and liabilities to reporting units, assigning goodwill to reporting units, and determining the fair value of each reporting unit. Significant judgment, and the use of significant estimates and assumptions, is required to estimate the fair value of reporting units, including estimating future cash flows, future market conditions, and determining the appropriate discount rates, growth rates, and operating margins, among others.
Our discounted cash flow analyses factor in assumptions on revenue and expense growth rates. These estimates are based upon our historical experience and projections of future activity, factoring in customer demand, and a cost structure necessary to achieve the related revenues.
Additionally, these discounted cash flow analyses factor in expected amounts of working capital and weighted average cost of capital. We believe our assumptions are reasonable, however, there can be no assurance that our estimates and assumptions made for purposes of our goodwill impairment testing, at the annual date and the interim testing date, will prove to be accurate predictions of the future. Changes in these estimates and assumptions as noted above, could lead us to conduct an additional interim goodwill impairment test and ultimately result in a significant goodwill impairment charge. In addition, a change in reporting units from any further reorganization, could materially affect the determination of reporting units or fair value for each reporting unit, which could trigger impairment in the future. It is not possible at this time to determine if any such future impairment charge would result. We will continue to review our results against forecasts and assess our assumptions to ensure they continue to be appropriate.
We evaluate our finite-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset is impaired or the estimated useful lives are no longer appropriate. Intangible assets resulting from the acquisition of entities accounted for using the purchase method of accounting are estimated by management based on the fair value of assets received. Our intangible assets have an economic useful life and/or expire after a specified period of time and thus are classified as finite-lived intangible assets on our balance sheets. Amortization of finite-lived intangible assets is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated economic life of the assets which range from three years to eight years. If indicators of impairment exist and the undiscounted projected cash flows associated with such assets are less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss is recorded to write the asset down to its estimated fair value. Fair value is estimated based on discounted future cash flows. Factors that could result in an impairment review include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to projected future operating results, significant negative industry or economic trends and changes in the planned use of assets. During the third and fourth quarters of 2014, we considered the impact of our annual and interim goodwill impairment tests, as well as the change in management and in certain strategic objectives and operations, on the recoverability of our long-lived assets. We concluded that there was no impairment of our long-lived intangible assets as of December 31, 2014.
In the second quarter of 2015, we committed to a plan to divest our EZ Prints business. Certain assets and liabilities of the EZ Prints business have been classified as assets and liabilities held for sale in accordance with ASC 205-20-55 on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and have been included in discontinued operations for all periods presented. In addition, condensed cash flow information for all periods presented is included. At this time, we reviewed the carrying value of the EZ Prints assets as compared to the fair value of such assets as measured by the offers received. Accordingly, as prescribed by ASC 360, Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, we recorded an impairment charge of $7.3 million to lower the carrying value of the assets to fair value and such charge is included in the operating section of “Discontinued Operations” in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. We completed the sale of our EZ Prints business in the third quarter of 2015 and recorded a gain on the sale of $0.3 million which is included in the "Other (expense) income, net" section of “Discontinued Operations” in the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
In connection with the sale of the InvitationBox.com, Art and Groups businesses, the Company eliminated $18.9 million of goodwill in 2014. In 2015, $0.4 million of Goodwill was added back due to an adjustment to the final sales price of the Art business.

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Income taxes
We use the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized by applying the statutory tax rates in effect in the years in which the differences between the financial reporting and tax filings basis of existing assets and liabilities are expected to reverse.
During the quarter ended December 31, 2013, we recorded a non-cash income tax provision of $9.3 million to establish a valuation allowance, and further increased the valuation allowance to $11.4 million as of December 31, 2015.
Management periodically evaluates the realizability of our net deferred tax assets based on all available evidence, both positive and negative. The realization of net deferred tax assets is solely dependent on our ability to generate sufficient future taxable income during periods prior to the expiration of tax statutes to fully utilize these assets.
During the quarter ended December 31, 2015, we weighed both positive and negative evidence and determined that there is a need for the valuation allowance due to the existence of three years of historical cumulative losses and a forecast that projected future losses from operations in 2016, which we considered significant verifiable negative evidence. We intend to maintain the valuation allowance until sufficient positive evidence exists to support reversal of the valuation allowance.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
We measure our stock based awards at fair value and recognize compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to our employees and directors, including employee stock options and restricted stock awards.
We estimate the fair value of stock options granted using the Black-Scholes valuation model. This model requires us to make estimates and assumptions including, among other things, estimates regarding the length of time an employee will retain vested stock options before exercising them, the estimated volatility of our common stock price using historical and implied volatility and the number of options that will be forfeited prior to vesting. The fair value is then amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which is generally the vesting period. Changes in these estimates and assumptions can materially affect the determination of the fair value of stock-based compensation and consequently, the related amount recognized in our consolidated statements of operations.

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Results of operations
The following table presents the components of our statement of operations as a percentage of net revenues:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Net revenues
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
Cost of net revenues
60

 
64

 
63

Gross profit
40

 
36

 
37

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
20

 
24

 
25

Technology and development
12

 
10

 
9

General and administrative
12

 
14

 
9

Acquisition-related costs

 

 

Impairment charges
1

 

 

Restructuring costs
1

 

 

Total operating expenses
46

 
48

 
43

Income (loss) from operations
(6
)
 
(13
)
 
(6
)
Interest income

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

Other (expense) income

 

 

Loss before income taxes
(6
)
 
(13
)
 
(6
)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 
(1
)
 
5

Net loss from continuing operations
(6
)%
 
(11
)%
 
(11
)%
Effective tax rate
(2.1
)%
 
10.2
 %
 
(81.2
)%


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Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014
The following table presents our statements of operations for the periods indicated:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands, except for percentages)
Net revenues
$
104,508

 
$
132,054

 
$
(27,546
)
 
(21
)%
Cost of net revenues
63,069

 
85,016

 
(21,947
)
 
(26
)
Gross profit
41,439

 
47,038

 
(5,599
)
 
(12
)
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
20,485

 
31,488

 
(11,003
)
 
(35
)
Technology and development
12,490

 
13,448

 
(958
)
 
(7
)
General and administrative
12,560

 
18,590

 
(6,030
)
 
(32
)
Acquisition-related costs

 
50

 
(50
)
 
(100
)
Impairment charges
788

 

 
788

 
NM

Restructuring costs
1,311

 
42

 
1,269

 
NM

Total operating expenses
47,634

 
63,618

 
(15,984
)
 
(25
)
Loss from operations
(6,195
)
 
(16,580
)
 
10,385

 
(63
)
Interest income
64

 
18

 
46

 
256

Interest expense
(62
)
 
(77
)
 
15

 
(19
)
Other (expense) income, net
58

 
6

 
52

 
867

Loss (income) before income taxes from continuing operations
(6,135
)
 
(16,633
)
 
10,498

 
(63
)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
128

 
(1,700
)
 
1,828

 
(108
)
Net loss from continuing operations
$
(6,263
)
 
$
(14,933
)
 
$
8,670

 
(58
)%
NM = Not meaningful
Net revenues
Net revenues decreased $27.5 million, or 21%, in 2015 compared to 2014. The change in revenue resulted from a decline in orders primarily within our CafePress.com marketplace and in our international domains. In addition, revenues within our Retail Partner Channel declined modestly compared to 2014. The decline in revenue from CafePress.com is primarily attributable to changes to our pricing and promotional strategy and a reduction in our variable advertising expenses intended to maximize profit margins. The decline in international revenue is due in part to a reduction in the number of international website domains that we maintain which occurred in the first quarter of 2015. Throughout 2015, net revenues were negatively impacted by the continued shifts in customer behavior resulting in a shifting traffic mix toward mobile devices. Within our Retail Partner Channel, growth in net revenues from our retail partner feeds was more than offset by a decline within our Corporate Shops platform. Our net revenues have historically varied from period to period and we expect this trend to continue.
Cost of net revenues
Cost of net revenues decreased $21.9 million, or 26%, in 2015 compared to 2014. As a percentage of net revenues, cost of net revenues was 60% in 2015, compared to 64% in 2014. Changes to our pricing and promotional strategy and improvements in the optimization of our manufacturing processes have yielded improvements in gross profit margins. Within cost of net revenues, materials, shipping, and labor decreased as a percentage of net revenues by approximately 2.9 percentage points. As a percentage of net revenues, commission expense also decreased by approximately 1.1 percentage points. Production overhead remained flat as a percentage of net revenues compared to last year despite the decline in revenue.

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Sales and marketing
Sales and marketing expenses decreased $11.0 million, or 35%, in 2015 compared to 2014. Sales and marketing expenses were 20% of net revenues in 2015 compared to 24% in 2014. The decrease in absolute dollars in sales and marketing expenses consists of an $11.1 million decline in variable expenses, partially offset by a $0.1 million increase in fixed expenses. The decline in variable expenses was primarily due to lower keyword and online advertising expenses as we changed the focus of our advertising programs to achieve higher levels of return on investment. To a lesser extent, variable expenses also declined due to lower customer service costs, and a decrease in credit card processing fees. The increase in fixed costs is due primarily to increased spending on marketing services related to our brand development and customer retention initiatives.
Technology and development
Technology and development expenses decreased $1.0 million, or 7%, in 2015 compared to 2014. Technology and development expenses were 12% of net revenues in 2015 compared to 10% in 2014. The decrease in absolute dollars is primarily due to a $0.9 million decrease in depreciation expense and a $0.7 million decrease in our co-location facility hosting and data costs. These declines more than offset $0.5 million of increased personnel expense primarily caused by a decline in the amount of labor spent on capitalizable development projects.
General and administrative
General and administrative expenses decreased $6.0 million, or 32%, in 2015 compared to 2014. General and administrative expenses were 12% of net revenues in 2015 compared to 14% in 2014. The decrease in absolute dollars was primarily due to a $4.0 million decline in professional services fees, consisting primarily of lower legal costs from decreased litigation activity this year. In addition, personnel-related costs declined by $2.0 million, primarily from lower stock-based compensation expense and, to a lesser extent, from one-time costs associated with the resignation of our former Chief Executive Officer in 2014.
Acquisition-related costs
There were no acquisition-related costs in 2015, compared to an expense of $50 thousand in 2014. As of December 31, 2015 we had fulfilled our obligations related to our previous acquisitions for performance-based contingent consideration payments and no remaining liability exists.
Restructuring costs
Restructuring costs were $1.3 million in 2015, compared to $42 thousand in 2014. In 2015, this expense consists of $0.8 million related to the reduction of our production capacity within our Louisville, Kentucky facility, primarily the write-off of the building, which is under a capital lease, and leasehold improvements which will no longer be in use and $0.5 million related to the early termination of our lease and the downsizing of our San Mateo, California office. Restructuring costs in 2014 related to the early termination of a facility lease.
Impairment charges
Impairment charges were $0.8 million in 2015, which related to capitalized internally developed software and website applications which are no longer being utilized. There were no impairment charges in 2014.
Provision for income taxes
The provision for income tax was $0.1 million in 2015 compared to a benefit of $1.7 million in 2014. Our effective tax rate was (2.1)% and 10.2% in 2015 and 2014, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2015, the effective tax rate was different than our statutory rate primarily due to the net loss from continuing operations while maintaining a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets. For the year ended December 31, 2014, the effective tax rate was different than the statutory tax rate primarily due to the effect of the reduction of the estimated fair value of contingent consideration and a tax loss carryback generated in the period while maintaining a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets. We intend to maintain the valuation allowance until sufficient positive evidence exists to support reversal of the valuation allowance.

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Comparison of the years ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013
The following table presents our statements of operations for the periods indicated:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2014
 
2013
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
(in thousands, except for percentages)
Net revenues
$
132,054

 
$
146,195

 
$
(14,141
)
 
(10
)%
Cost of net revenues
85,016

 
92,462

 
(7,446
)
 
(8
)
Gross profit
47,038

 
53,733

 
(6,695
)
 
(12
)
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and marketing
31,488

 
36,003

 
(4,515
)
 
(13
)
Technology and development
13,448

 
13,461

 
(13
)
 

General and administrative
18,590

 
12,668

 
5,922

 
47

Acquisition-related costs
50

 
112

 
(62
)
 
(55
)
Restructuring costs
42

 

 
42

 
NM

Total operating expenses
63,618

 
62,244

 
1,374

 
2

Loss from operations
(16,580
)
 
(8,511
)
 
(8,069
)
 
95

Interest income
18

 
40

 
(22
)
 
(55
)
Interest expense
(77
)
 
(113
)
 
36

 
(32
)
Other (expense) income, net
6

 
(7
)
 
13

 
(186
)
Loss before income taxes
(16,633
)
 
(8,591
)
 
(8,042
)
 
94

(Benefit) provision for income taxes
(1,700
)
 
6,973

 
(8,673
)
 
(124
)
Net loss from continuing operations
$
(14,933
)
 
$
(15,564
)
 
$
631

 
(4
)%
NM = Not meaningful
Net revenues
Net revenues decreased $14.1 million, or 10%, in 2014 compared to 2013. The decrease in net revenues resulted from a decline in orders primarily within our CafePress.com site, which more than offset growth within our Retail Partner Channel. The decline in revenue from CafePress.com is primarily attributable to changes to our pricing and promotional strategy and a reduction in our variable advertising expenses in the third and fourth quarters of 2014. Throughout 2014 net revenues were also impacted by the continued shifts in customer behavior resulting in increased traffic from mobile devices. Within our Retail Partner Channel, growth in net revenues from new and expanded retail partner feeds more than offset a modest decline within our Corporate Shops platform. Our net revenues have historically varied from period to period and we expect this trend to continue.
Cost of net revenues
Cost of net revenues decreased $7.4 million, or (8)%, in 2014 compared to 2013. As a percentage of net revenues, cost of net revenues was 64% in 2014, compared to 63% in 2013. Within cost of net revenues, the variable components of materials, shipping, and labor collectively increased by approximately 1 percentage point due to changes in product mix and increases in outsourced manufacturing. Plant overhead costs increased by approximately 1 percentage point due to higher depreciation and facility rent expense and overall loss of leverage due to a decline in revenue. These increases were partially offset by a 1 percentage point decline in commission costs.
Sales and marketing
Sales and marketing expenses decreased $4.5 million, or 13%, in 2014 compared to 2013. Sales and marketing expenses were 24% of net revenues in 2014 compared to 25% in 2013. The decrease in absolute dollars in sales and marketing expenses consists of a $4.0 million decline in variable expenses and a $0.5 million decline in fixed expenses. The decline in variable expenses was primarily due to lower keyword and other online advertising expenses as we changed the focus of our advertising

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programs to achieve higher levels of return on investment in the latter portion of the year. To a lesser extent, our variable expenses also declined due to lower flash deal promotion expense and a decline in affiliate commissions. The decline in fixed costs is primarily due to a reduction in personnel related expenses.
Technology and development
Technology and development expenses were essentially flat in 2014 and 2013. Technology and development expenses were 10% of net revenues in 2014 compared to 9% in 2013. In 2014, a modest decline in personnel expense caused by increased levels of capitalization of labor was offset by higher third party contractor costs and increased stock-based compensation expense.
General and administrative
General and administrative expenses increased $5.9 million, or 47%, in 2014 compared to 2013. General and administrative expenses were 14% in 2014 and 9% in 2013. The increase in absolute dollars was primarily due to a $4.3 million increase in professional services fees, consisting primarily of legal fees from increased litigation activity and accounting fees, and personnel related costs increased by approximately $1.1 million, primarily due to costs associated with the resignation of our former chief executive officer in 2014. In addition, other expenses increased by $0.4 million, primarily driven by higher insurance costs and the effect of a gain on fixed asset disposal recorded in 2013.
Acquisition-related costs
Acquisition-related costs were $50 thousand in 2014 and $0.1 million in 2013. These expenses consisted of legal and professional fees related to our acquisition activity.
Restructuring costs
Restructuring costs were $42 thousand in 2014, compared to none in 2013. Restructuring costs in 2014 related to the early termination of a facility lease.
Provision (benefit) for income taxes
The benefit from income tax was $1.7 million in 2014 compared to a provision of $7.0 million in 2013. Our effective tax rate was 10.2% and (81.2)% in 2014 and 2013, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2014, the effective tax rate was different than the statutory tax rate primarily due to the effect of the reduction of the estimated fair value of contingent consideration and a tax loss carryback generated in the period while maintaining a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets. For the year ended December 31, 2013, our effective tax rate provision is higher than the statutory rate primarily due to the recording of a non-cash income tax provision of $9.3 million to establish a valuation allowance. We weighed both positive and negative evidence and determined that there is a need for the valuation allowance due to the existence of three years of historical cumulative losses, which we considered significant verifiable negative evidence.

Quarterly trends
Our business is subject to seasonal fluctuations. In particular, we generate a significant portion of our revenues during the fourth quarter, primarily due to increased retail activity during the holiday seasons. During the fourth quarter, we typically see our largest increases in orders and customers. As a result of this seasonality, our revenues in the first quarter of each year are generally substantially lower than our revenues in the fourth quarter of the preceding year, and we expect this to continue for the foreseeable future.
Liquidity and capital resources
As of December 31, 2015 we had cash, cash equivalents, and short term investments totaling $50.3 million. In the first quarter of 2015, we sold the assets of our Art and Groups businesses for a total of $37.7 million, net of expenses, $3.4 million of which is being held in escrow accounts to be released to us 15 months after each respective closing date if there are no claims for indemnification outstanding against us at that time. In the third quarter, we sold the assets of our EZ Prints business for

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$0.1 million in cash and a non-interest bearing note receivable for $0.5 million due in 2018. As part of the transaction, the buyer retained $3.3 million in cash and we paid a $1.25 million obligation to a current customer.
In March 2013, we entered into a loan and security agreement which provided for a revolving credit facility of $5.0 million to fund acquisitions, share repurchases and other general corporate needs through June 2016 and which bears interest at either the London Inter Bank Offer Rate +1.75% or the bank’s prime rate +.75%.
In July 2014, we amended our loan and security agreement, which extended the maximum amount available under our revolving credit facility from $5.0 million to $6.5 million, and simultaneously entered into a letter of credit in connection with our amended facility lease agreement for $1.5 million. The letter of credit will expire no later than September 15, 2020. All other terms, conditions, covenants and the interest rate under the original March 2013 credit facility remain the same. Excluding the $1.5 million letter of credit, there were no draws against the facility as of December 31, 2015 and $5.0 million remained available.
This credit agreement requires us to comply with various financial covenants, including the maintenance of a 1.5 to 1 liquidity to debt ratio, all of which we were in compliance with at December 31, 2015, and is secured through all of our assets. With our current cash levels and forecasts, we expect to continue to meet this covenant. If we require additional capital resources to grow our business or to acquire complementary technologies and businesses at any time in the future, we may seek to sell additional equity or raise funds through debt financing or other sources. The sale of additional equity could result in additional dilution to our stockholders. If we raise additional funds by obtaining loans from third parties, the terms of those financing arrangements may include negative covenants or other restrictions on our business that could impair our operating flexibility, and would also require us to incur interest expense. We can provide no assurance that additional financing will be available at all or, if available, that we would be able to obtain financing on terms favorable to us.
On May 4, 2015, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program of up to 20% of the outstanding shares of our common stock or an aggregate of 3.5 million shares of our common stock, whichever is less, over a period of one year. As of December 31, 2015, we have used $4.2 million of cash to repurchase 931,664 shares of our common stock. The stock repurchase program may be modified, extended or terminated by our Board of Directors at any time and there is no guarantee as to the exact number of shares that will be repurchased under the program. The stock repurchase program is expected to be funded by available working capital.
Our future capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned and will depend on many factors, including, among other things, market acceptance of our products, our growth, and our operating results, as well as any potential investments, acquisitions or stock repurchases. We anticipate that our current cash and cash equivalent balances and cash generated from operations, and cash available from our credit line will be sufficient to meet our strategic and working capital requirements for at least the next twelve months.
The following table summarizes our cash flows for the periods indicated:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in thousands)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
$
(1,883
)
 
$
1,032

 
$
9,717

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
$
8,174

 
$
(2,155
)
 
$
(4,006
)
Net cash used in financing activities
$
(4,277
)
 
$
(1,563
)
 
$
(3,574
)
Cash flows from operating activities
Our primary source of cash from operating activities is cash collections from our customers and partners. The substantial majority of our net revenues are generated from credit card transactions and credit card accounts receivable and are typically settled within one and five business days. Our primary uses of cash for operating activities are for settlement of accounts payable to vendors and personnel-related expenditures. Our quarterly cash flows from operations are impacted by the seasonality of our business. We generate a significant portion of our cash flow from operations in the fourth quarter and cash flows in the first three to nine months have generally been negative due to the timing of settlements of accounts payable and accrued liabilities related to our fourth quarter holiday business, and to a lesser extent, operating losses. We expect that cash

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provided by operating activities may fluctuate in future periods due to a number of factors, including volatility in our operating results, seasonality, accounts receivable collections performance, inventory and supply chain management, and the timing and amount of personnel-related payments.
In 2015, $4.0 million in net income adjusted for non-cash items and a $5.8 million reduction in working capital items primarily due to the timing of vendor payments resulted in net cash provided by operations of $1.9 million. Non-cash items, which totaled $1.8 million, included impairment charges of $8.1 million, depreciation and amortization of $6.8 million, stock-based compensation of $1.8 million, amortization of intangible assets of $1.2 million, and a loss on disposal of fixed assets of $1.1 million, offset by a gain on the sale of businesses of $17.3 million. The impairment charges of $8.1 million consist of $7.3 million from the write-down of EZ Prints assets prior to its sale and $0.8 million related to the write off of capitalized website development that will no longer be used. The $1.0 million loss on the disposal of assets includes $0.8 million related to the capacity reduction in our Louisville, Kentucky facility and is included in restructuring costs. Working capital decreased primarily due to the increase in accounts payable related to the timing of payments for raw material purchases.
In 2014, $2.4 million in net income adjusted for non-cash items and a $1.3 million reduction in working capital items primarily due to the timing of vendor payments resulted in net cash provided by operations of $1.0 million. Non-cash items, which totaled $18.3 million, included depreciation and amortization of $9.8 million, amortization of intangible assets of $4.2 million, stock-based compensation of $2.9 million, a $0.2 million loss on fixed assets, offset by a $0.7 million reduction in the deferred tax liability and a $0.7 million change in the fair value of contingent consideration. In 2014, we sold assets resulting in a loss of $2.6 million. Working capital increased primarily due to the increase in accounts payable related to the timing of payments for raw material purchases.
In 2013, $7.5 million in net income adjusted for non-cash items and a $2.2 million change in working capital items resulted in net cash provided by operations of $9.7 million. Non-cash items, which totaled $21.4 million, included depreciation and amortization of $9.1 million, amortization of intangible assets of $5.0 million, stock-based compensation of $3.8 million, and deferred income tax of $8.3 million, offset by a change in the fair value of contingent consideration of $4.5 million. Working capital decreased primarily due to the increase in accounts payable related to the timing of payments for raw material purchases.
Cash flows from investing activities
In 2015, net cash provided by investing activities was $8.2 million, consisting primarily of the net proceeds received from the sale of the Art, Groups, and EZ Prints businesses of $34.4 million, of which $3.4 million was placed in escrow and classified as restricted cash. This was partially offset by purchases of $17.6 million in short term investments, net of maturities, and $5.2 million in capital expenditures. The capital expenditures consisted primarily of $1.8 million for the purchase of land and a building to be used for our corporate offices, $1.9 million of software and website development costs, and $1.5 million for the purchase of production and computer equipment.
In 2014, net cash used in investing activities was $2.2 million, consisting primarily of $2.7 million in capital expenditures related to the purchase of property and equipment and the capitalization of $3.0 million of software and website development costs, offset by $3.5 million in maturing short term investments.
In 2013, net cash used in investing activities was $4.0 million, consisting primarily of $6.3 million for capital expenditures related to the purchase of property and equipment and the capitalization of $4.0 million of software and website development costs, offset by $5.9 million in maturing short term investments, net of purchases.
Cash flows from financing activities
In 2015, net cash used by financing activities was $4.3 million, primarily due to $4.2 million in repurchases of common stock and $0.5 million in payments on capital lease obligations, partially offset by $0.4 million of proceeds from stock option exercises.
In 2014, net cash used by financing activities was $1.6 million, primarily due to $1.2 million cash paid in connection with settlement of contingent consideration, and $0.8 million in payments on capital lease obligations and insurance premium financing, partially offset by $0.5 million of proceeds from stock option exercises.

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In 2013, net cash used by financing activities was $3.6 million, primarily due to $2.5 million cash paid in connection with settlement of contingent consideration, and $1.4 million in payments on short term borrowings and capital lease obligations, offset by net borrowings under insurance financing of $0.7 million.
Non-GAAP financial measures
Regulation G, conditions for use of Non-Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or Non-GAAP, financial measures, and other SEC regulations define and prescribe the conditions for use of certain Non-GAAP financial information. We closely monitor Adjusted EBITDA which meets the definition of a Non-GAAP financial measure. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) less interest and other income (expense), provision for (benefit from) income taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, acquisition-related costs, restructuring costs and impairment charges.
We use Adjusted EBITDA as a key performance measure because we believe it facilitates operating performance comparisons from period to period by excluding potential differences caused by variations in capital structures (affecting net interest expense), tax positions (such as the impact on periods of changes in effective tax rates or fluctuations in permanent differences or discrete quarterly items), the impact of depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, acquisition-related costs, restructuring costs and impairment charges. Because Adjusted EBITDA facilitates internal comparisons of our historical operating performance on a more consistent basis, we also use Adjusted EBITDA for business planning purposes and to incentivize and compensate our management personnel.
Our use of Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider this measure in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP as the excluded items may have significant effects on our operating results and financial condition. When evaluating our performance, you should consider Adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including various cash flow metrics, net income (loss) and our other GAAP results. The following shows the trend of Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net revenue, for each of the periods indicated:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in thousands, except for percentages)
Net revenues
$
104,508

 
$
132,054

 
$
146,195

Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA
$
3,861

 
$
(6,393
)
 
$
1,660

% of net revenues
3.7
%
 
(4.8
)%
 
1.1
%

The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income, the most comparable GAAP measure, for each of the periods indicated:

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in thousands)
Net income (loss) from continuing operations
$
(6,263
)
 
$
(14,933
)
 
$
(15,564
)
Non-GAAP adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
Interest and other (income) expense
(60
)
 
53

 
80

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes
128

 
(1,700
)
 
6,973

Depreciation and amortization
6,251

 
7,294

 
7,184

Stock-based compensation
1,706

 
2,801

 
2,875

Acquisition-related costs

 
50

 
112

Impairment charges
788

 

 

Restructuring costs
1,311

 
42

 

Adjusted EBITDA
$
3,861

 
$
(6,393
)
 
$
1,660



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Contribution Margin
Contribution margin (a non-GAAP financial measure which we reconcile to “Gross profit” in our consolidated statements of operations) consists of gross profit plus stock-based compensation included in cost of net revenues less variable sales and marketing expenses and reflects an additional way of viewing our results. When viewed together with our GAAP results, we believe contribution margin provides management and users of the financial statements information about our ability to cover our operating costs, such as Technology and Development and General and Administrative expenses. Contribution margin is used in addition to and in conjunction with results presented in accordance with GAAP and should not be relied upon to the exclusion of GAAP financial measures. You should review our financial statements and publicly-filed reports in their entirety and not rely on any single financial measure. One material limitation associated with the use of contribution margin is that it is an incomplete measure of profitability as it does not include all operating expenses or non-operating income and expenses. Management compensates for these limitations when using this measure by looking at other GAAP measures, such as operating income and net income.

The following table presents the calculation of contribution margin from continuing operations for the periods indicated (in thousands, except for percentages):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
(in thousands, except for percentages)
Net revenues
$
104,508

 
100
 %
 
$
132,054

 
100
 %
 
$
146,195

 
100
 %
Cost of net revenues
63,069

 
60

 
85,016

 
64

 
92,462

 
63

Gross profit
41,439

 
40

 
47,038

 
36

 
53,733

 
37

Non-GAAP adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Add: Stock-based compensation
163

 

 
162

 

 
177

 

Less: Variable sales and marketing costs
(13,342
)
 
(13
)
 
(24,449
)
 
(19
)
 
(27,881
)
 
(19
)
Contribution Margin (from continuing operations)
$
28,260

 
27
 %
 
$
22,751

 
17
 %
 
$
26,029

 
18
 %

Off-balance sheet arrangements
We do not have any relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes. In addition, we do not have any undisclosed borrowings or debt and we have not entered into any synthetic leases. We are, therefore, not materially exposed to any financing, liquidity, market or credit risk that could arise if we had engaged in such relationships.
Table of Contractual Obligations: